Rhabdomyolysis: a review, with emphasis on the pediatric population

  title={Rhabdomyolysis: a review, with emphasis on the pediatric population},
  author={Essam F. Elsayed and Robert F. Reilly},
  journal={Pediatric Nephrology},
Rhabdomyolysis is a common clinical syndrome and accounts for 7% of all cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the USA. It can result from a wide variety of disorders, such as trauma, exercise, medications and infection, but in the pediatric population, infection and inherited disorders are the most common causes of rhabdomyolysis. Approximately half of patients with rhabdomyolysis present with the triad of myalgias, weakness and dark urine. The clinical suspicion, especially in the setting of… 
Review Rhabdomyolysis: Review of the literature
A diagnostic algorithm for rhabdomyolysis is proposed, which is aimed at preserving renal function, resolving compartment syndrome, restoring metabolic derangements, and volume replacement in patients with acute renal failure.
Rhabdomyolysis: Review of the literature
Clinical spectrum of rhabdomyolysis presented to pediatric emergency department
The classic triad of symptoms of rhabdomyolysis includes myalgia, weakness and dark urine are not always presented in children, and the prognosis of r Habdomyolynsis was good with appropriate management.
Clinical Characteristics of Rhabdomyolysis in Children : Single Center Experience
In children, infection was the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis, and in severe cases, especially in patients with underlying kidney disease, hemodialysis may be necessary in the present study.
Can McArdle disease be induced by infection associated with rhabdomyolysis case report?
  • A. Ghavidel
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of Analytical Research in Clinical Medicine
  • 2018
Rhabdomyolysis may develop among individuals with abnormal muscles as in congenital diseases of glycogenolysis, glycolysis, purine, and lipid metabolism, which prevents physicians from administrating certain drugs in patients with MD.
McArdle disease: a “pediatric” disorder presenting in an adult with acute kidney injury
A case of an adult patient presenting with acute rhabdomyolysis secondary to McArdle disease, a genetic disease causing defective glycogenolysis is reported, highlighting the importance of recognizing the potential of undiagnosed “pediatric” disorders in adulthood.
Rhabdomyolysis with different etiologies in childhood
It is important to distinguish the sporadic and recurrent rhabdomyolysis cases from each other and to follow up more regardful and attentive.
The role of diagnostic and prognostic factors
Rhabdomyolysis has characteristic clinical, laboratory and radiologic features, but does require a high index of suspicion so that the diagnosis would not be missed, and the sensitivity and specificity of the various characteristics are discussed.
Rhabdomyolysis: Revisited
The mortality rate ranges from 10% to up to 50% with severe AKI, so high index of suspicion and screening should be in care plan of seriously ill patients at risk for RML.
Acute kidney injury in pediatric patients with rhabdomyolysis
Compared with the non-AKI group, the AKI group showed higher levels of peak creatinine kinase and myoglobin, without statistical significance, which indicates children with underlying diseases are more vulnerable to rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.


Rhabdomyolysis: An Evaluation of 475 Hospitalized Patients
Exogenous toxins were the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis, with illicit drugs, alcohol, and prescribed drugs responsible for 46%.
Drug-induced rhabdomyolysis
A high index of suspicion, early recognition, and adequate treatment will result in an excellent prognosis of drug-induced rhabdomyolysis.
Acute Pediatric Rhabdomyolysis: Causes and Rates of Renal Failure
The causes, clinical presentation, and prevalence of acute renal failure in pediatric rhabdomyolysis with the published data for adults are compared, and the relationship of acute kidney failure with treatment modalities such as fluid and bicarbonate administration is explored.
Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in children
It is suggested that ARF is more likely to develop in the presence of dehydration, metabolic acidosis, or severe muscle damage, or with multiple organ failure in children with acute rhabdomyolysis.
Rhabdomyolysis of infectious and noninfectious causes.
Fever is the only one associated with infectious rhabdomyolysis and must be suspected in elderly patients with fever and low levels of CK, which are lower than in other causes of RM.
Biochemical investigation of suspected rhabdomyolysis
  • R. Beetham
  • Medicine
    Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • 2000
Rhabdomyolysis is a common condition in which injury to skeletal muscle results in leakage of the contents of myocytes into extravascular uid and, if severe enough, passage of suf®cient myoglobin
[Acute rhabdomyolysis in the child].
Clinical signs are inconstant and non-specific, and functional signs are difficult to appreciate in children, and prognosis of rhabdomyolysis relates to the aetiology and the presence of acute renal failure.
Rhabdomyolysis and myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure.
  • R. Zager
  • Medicine
    Kidney international
  • 1996
How muscle necrosis can negatively impact the kidney, potentially culminating in tubular necrosis and ARF is discussed, to review current and possible future pharmacologic approaches for the management of this dramatic and often life threatening "myo-renal syndrome".
Clinical perspectives of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis.