Revolutionary Science

  title={Revolutionary Science},
  author={Arturo Casadevall and Ferric C. Fang},
ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations… Expand
Interpreting the History of Evolutionary Biology through a Kuhnian Prism: Sense or Nonsense?
Traditionally, Thomas S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) is largely identified with his analysis of the structure of scientific revolutions. Here, we contribute to a minorityExpand
Tool-Driven Revolutions in Archaeological Science
How computational approaches to improving reproducibility and transparency in archaeology are mediated and transformed by the use of R code is discussed. Expand
In Search of Outstanding Research Advances: Prototyping the creation of an open dataset of "editorial highlights"
It is argued that the "Breakthrough" concept is rooted in the Kuhnian model of scientific revolution which has been both conceptually and empirically challenged. Expand
Elegant Science
A definition of elegance is proposed that includes clarity, cleverness, correctness, explanatory power, parsimony, and beauty, and can improve the quality of science. Expand
Disruptive papers published in Scientometrics: meaningful results by using an improved variant of the disruption index originally proposed by Wu, Wang, and Evans (2019)
The calculation of a field-specific version of $${DI}_{5}$$ DI 5 (focusing on disruptiveness within the same field) for Scientometrics papers in the current study reveals that the variant is possibly able to identify landmark papers in scientometrics. Expand
Influenza, evolution, and the next pandemic
  • D. Fedson
  • Medicine
  • Evolution, medicine, and public health
  • 2018
Treating the host response might be the only practical way to reduce global mortality during the next influenza pandemic and might also help reduce mortality due to seasonal influenza and other forms of acute critical illness. Expand
A National Initiative in Data Science for Health: An Evaluation of the UK Farr Institute
Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the inter-institutional, inter-disciplinary mobilisation of data and skills in the Farr Institute contributed to establishing the emerging field of dataExpand
Convergent validity of several indicators measuring disruptiveness with milestone assignments to physics papers by experts
It is not the initially proposed disruption index that performed best (DI1), but the variant DI5 which has been introduced by Bornmann, Devarakonda, Tekles, and Chacko (2019) and in the CEM analysis of this study, the DEP variant showed favorable results. Expand
Graduate Biomedical Science Education Needs a New Philosophy
The challenge is to modify graduate programs such that they continue to generate individuals capable of conducting deep research while at the same time producing more broadly trained scientists without lengthening the time to a degree. Expand
Funding : the Case for a Modified Lottery
The time-honored mechanism of allocating funds based on ranking of proposals by scientific peer review is no longer effective, because review panels cannot accurately stratify proposals to identifyExpand


The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted,Expand
(A)Historical Science
Why scientists should care more about the history of science is examined to illuminate social influences on the scientific process, allow scientists to learn from previous errors, and provide a greater appreciation for the importance of serendipity in scientific discovery. Expand
Revolution in Science
Cohen seeks to show that revolutions in science generally develop in four stages, and presents little in the way of detailed analysis or broad interpretation that will seem new to historians of science in their respective areas of research interest. Expand
Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge: Does the Distinction between Normal and Revolutionary Science Hold Water?
Professor T. S. Kuhn's contribution to this Symposium can be looked at from two angles: either as a critique of Sir Karl Popper's approach towards the philosophy of science, in the light of itsExpand
Specialized Science
The emergence and consequences of specialization in science are analyzed, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and it is suggested that specialization carries significant costs. Expand
Field Science—the Nature and Utility of Scientific Fields
The nature of fields is considered and their important role in maintaining information and providing normative standards for scientific work is considered, suggesting that fields arise naturally as a consequence of increasing information and scientific specialization. Expand
Scientometric identification of elite 'revolutionary science' research institutions by analysis of trends in Nobel prizes 1947-2006.
Although Nobel science prizes are sporadically won by numerous nations and institutions, it seems that long term national strength in revolutionary science is mainly a result of sustaining and newly-generating multi-Nobel-winning research centres. Expand
Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric).
The NFLT metric confirms previous observations that many public universities in the Western USA have now become a major focus of revolutionaryScience; and that Harvard has declined from its previous status as the top world centre of revolutionary science to about seventh-place. Expand
Is the Nobel Prize good for science?
  • A. Casadevall, F. Fang
  • Biology, Medicine
  • FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2013
Changing the Nobel Prize to more fairly allocate credit would reduce the potential for controversy and directly benefit the scientific enterprise by promoting cooperation and collaboration of scientists within a field to reduce the negative consequences of competition between individual scientists. Expand
The unusual origin of the polymerase chain reaction.
  • K. Mullis
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Scientific American
  • 1990
I stumbled across a process that could make unlimited numbers of copies of genes, a process now known as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), one Friday night in April, 1983, as I gripped the steering wheel of my car and snaked along a moonlit mountain road into northern California's redwood country. Expand