Reviving a neglected celestial underwater polarization compass for aquatic animals.

@article{Waterman2006RevivingAN,
  title={Reviving a neglected celestial underwater polarization compass for aquatic animals.},
  author={Talbot H. Waterman},
  journal={Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society},
  year={2006},
  volume={81 1},
  pages={111-5}
}
Substantial in situ measurements on clear days in a variety of marine environments at depths in the water down to 200 m have demonstrated the ubiquitous daytime presence of sun-related e-vector (=plane of polarization) patterns. In most lines of sight the e-vectors tilt from horizontal towards the sun at angles equal to the apparent underwater refracted zenith angle of the sun. A maximum tilt-angle of approximately 48.5 degrees , is reached in horizontal lines of sight at 90 degrees to the sun… CONTINUE READING