# Revisiting the envelope approximation: Gravitational waves from bubble collisions

@article{Weir2016RevisitingTE, title={Revisiting the envelope approximation: Gravitational waves from bubble collisions}, author={David J. Weir}, journal={Physical Review D}, year={2016}, volume={93}, pages={124037} }

We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independently of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope…

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