Revisiting nicotine’s role in the ageing brain and cognitive impairment

@article{Majdi2017RevisitingNR,
  title={Revisiting nicotine’s role in the ageing brain and cognitive impairment},
  author={Alireza Majdi and Farzin Kamari and Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee and S. Sadigh-Eteghad},
  journal={Reviews in the Neurosciences},
  year={2017},
  volume={28},
  pages={767 - 781}
}
Abstract Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors… 

Figures from this paper

Possible Engagement of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Pathophysiology of Brain Ischemia-Induced Cognitive Impairment
TLDR
It seems that nAChRs might be known as key regulators in the control of ischemia pathology, and their modulation could be considered as a new avenue in the multi-target treatment of post-stroke cognitive impairment.
Amyloid-β, tau, and the cholinergic system in Alzheimer’s disease: seeking direction in a tangle of clues
TLDR
None of the popular hypotheses of AD such as amyloidopathy or tauopathy seem to be responsible for the changes observed in AD alone, so the main culprit should be sought higher in the stream somewhere in APP metabolism or Wnt signaling in the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain.
Nicotine Modulates Cognitive Function in D-Galactose-Induced Senescence in Mice
TLDR
Testing the claim that nicotine attenuates the signs of brain dysfunction in the model of brain aging induced by D-galactose in mice found that nicotine at specific doses and routes has the potential to attenuate age-related cognitive impairment, mito-oxidative damage, and apoptosis and the doses raise neurotrophic factors without producing withdrawal signs.
Molecular Insights Into Memory-Enhancing Metabolites of Nicotine in Brain: A Systematic Review
TLDR
Three pharmacologically active biotransformations of nicotine in the brain, including cotinine, norcotinine, and nornicotine, are revealed, among which cotinines and nORNicotine both had a procognitive impact without adverse effects.
Phytoconstituents and their Possible Mechanistic Profile for Alzheimer's Disease - A Literature Review.
TLDR
Although several herbals have shown neuroprotective actions, the phytoconstituents that have been tested experimentally against different Alzheimer's pathology models need to be considered by the researchers for further drug development process to make them viable clinically, which is currently a lacuna.
Neurotrophic factors hold promise for the future of Parkinson’s disease treatment: is there a light at the end of the tunnel?
TLDR
This work focuses on the protective effects of NTFs, especially CDNF and MANF, on nigrostriatal DAergic neurons in PD, and whether these factors are suitable for the prevention of progressive cell loss in PD.
Cotinine and 6-Hydroxy-L-Nicotine Reverses Memory Deficits and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Aβ25-35-Induced Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
TLDR
The treatment exhibited a pro-cognitive, antioxidant, and anti-AChE profile in the Aβ25-35-induced rat model of AD, suggesting these nicotinic derivatives that act on the cholinergic system might represent a promising choice to ameliorate AD conditions.
Nicotine induced neurocognitive protection and anti-inflammation effect by activating α4β2 nAChRs in ischemic rats.
TLDR
This study showed that nicotine had anti-inflammatory potency, which is most likely due to the activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which plays a role in inhibiting the inflammatory factors, which contribute to improving cognitive impairment in ischemic rats.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 184 REFERENCES
Cholinergic system during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease: therapeutic implications
TLDR
Drugs treating the multiple pathologies and clinical symptoms in AD (e.g., M1 cholinoceptor and/or galaninergic drugs) should be considered for a more comprehensive treatment approach for cholinergic dysfunction.
Neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of nicotine.
TLDR
The present review summarizes the most important results of experiments about nicotinic neuroprotection and neurotoxicity in humans and animals and illustrates well known modifications of cholinergic transmission during physiological (normal aging) and pathological neurodegeneration.
Nicotine patches in Alzheimer's disease: Pilot study on learning, memory, and safety
Astrocytic and microglial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: an overlooked issue in Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
This review gathers the most recent advances along with the previous data on astrocytic and microglial nAChRs role in AD pathogenesis.
Amyloid β, Glutamate, Excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's Disease: Are We on the Right Track?
TLDR
Because cholinergic and glutamatergic dysfunction occurs early in AD, the coadministration of appropriate treatment in early stages of the disease might represent a valid option from the beginning of cognitive decline.
Wnt Signaling: Role in Alzheimer Disease and Schizophrenia
TLDR
This review focuses on the relationship between Wnt signaling and its potential relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases including AD and Schizophrenia.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...