Revisiting Mandarin ‘apical vowels’: An articulatory and acoustic study

  title={Revisiting Mandarin ‘apical vowels’: An articulatory and acoustic study},
  author={Sang-Im Lee-Kim},
  journal={Journal of the International Phonetic Association},
  pages={261 - 282}
  • Sang-Im Lee-Kim
  • Published 25 November 2014
  • Physics
  • Journal of the International Phonetic Association
The present study investigates the articulatory and acoustic properties of the unique apical segments in Mandarin Chinese that occur after dental and retroflex sibilants instead of the high front vowel [i]. An ultrasound study showed that the segments are homorganic with the preceding dental and retroflex sibilants. However, an acoustic study showed that they have a periodic waveform and clear formant structures with no inherent frication noise, indicating that they are not ‘voiced fricatives… 
Perceptual distinctiveness between dental and palatal sibilants in different vowel contexts and its implications for phonological contrasts
Mandarin Chinese has dental, palatal, and retroflex sibilants, but their contrasts before [_i] are avoided: The palatals appear before [i] while the dentals and retroflexes appear before homorganic
Fricative vowels as an intermediate stage of vowel apicalization
  • Fang Hu, Feng Ling
  • Linguistics, Physics
    Language and Linguistics / 語言暨語言學
  • 2019
Diphthongization and apicalization are two commonly detected phonetic and/or phonological processes for the development of high vowels, with the process of apicalization being of particular
In this study, we analyze mid-sagittal and coronal ultrasound data from four subjects in order to investigate the articulatory properties of the apical vowel /z/ in Jixi-Hui Chinese (JHC). We seek to
The Phonology and Phonetics of Kaifeng Mandarin Vowels
  • Lei Wang
  • Linguistics, Physics
  • 2020
It is argued that the present study has gone some way towards enhancing the understanding of Mandarin segmental phonology in general and has introduced two new opening diphthongs /eɛ ɤʌ/ in the inventory, which have traditionally been described as monophthongs.
La « voyelle apicale » en chinois de Jixi : caractéristiques acoustiques et comportement phonologique
Apical vowel” of Jixi-Hui Chinese: acoustic characteristics and phonological behavior. This study investigates the phonetic and phonological properties of the “apical vowel” /z/, as attested in
Acoustic characteristics of Punjabi retroflex and dental stops.
Although burst spectral measures and formant transitions do not consistently differentiate retroflexes from dentals in some vowel contexts, stop release duration, and total stop duration reliably differentiate Punjabi retroflex and dental stops across all word contexts and vocalic environments.
Effect of several acoustic cues on perceiving Mandarin retroflex affricates and fricatives in continuous speech.
This study reports two experiments that explore the acoustic cues relevant to the contrast between the Mandarin retroflex series /tʂ/, / tʂ(h)/ and /ʂ/ in continuous speech.
Articulatory variability and fricative noise in apical vowels
It is argued that other articulatory adjustments may also limit frication in apical vowels, but that these strategies are implemented variably such that some speakers occasionally exhibit fricative noise.
Sibilant Fricative Merging in Taiwan Mandarin: An Investigation of Tongue Postures using Ultrasound Imaging
Results showed that the [s–ʂ] merger varies across speakers and may also be conditioned by vowel contexts and that articulatory mergers may not be entirely reflected in CoG values, suggesting that auxiliary articulatory gestures may be employed to maintain the acoustic contrast.


The phonetics and phonology of retroflexes
This dissertation investigates the phonetic realization and phonological behaviour of the class of retroflexes, i.e. sounds that are articulated with the tongue tip or the underside of the tongue tip
Geometry, kinematics, and acoustics of Tamil liquid consonants.
This study illustrates the use of multiple techniques--static palatography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetometry) for investigating both static and dynamic articulatory characteristics using a single native speaker of Tamil.
Articulatory-acoustic kinematics: the production of American English /s/.
This study documents in detail how jaw, tongue front, tongue back, lips, and the first spectral moment covary during the production of /s/, to establish how coarticulation affects this segment.
The Phonetic Development of Voiceless Sibilant Fricatives in English, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese
This dissertation examines the development of voiceless sibilant fricatives in children speaking English, Japanese or Mandarin Chinese. Both English and Japanese have a two-way distinction in
Toward articulatory-acoustic models for liquid approximants based on MRI and EPG data. Part II. The rhotics.
Magnetic resonance images of the vocal tract during sustained production of [symbol: see text] by four native American English talkers are employed for measuring vocal-tract dimensions and for
Toward articulatory-acoustic models for liquid approximants based on MRI and EPG data. Part I. The laterals
Magnetic resonance images of the vocal tract during the sustained phonation of /l/ (both dark and light allophones) by four native American English talkers are employed for measuring lengths, area
The Sounds of the World's Languages
Ladefoged and Maddieson (L&M) have set themselves the formidable task of giving “a description of all the known ways in which the sounds of the world’s languages differ,” in order to provide the
The Segmental Phonemes of the Peiping Dialect
1. It must be emphasized at the outset that this paper is concerned with phonemics and not with transcriptions. This is not an attempt to add one more segment to that remarkable product of Natural
Eliminating the feature [lateral]
The feature [lateral] has a very limited morphophonemic or classificatory role which makes its presence in the universal phonetic feature inventory questionable. A mode of elimination is suggested