Revisiting Mandarin ‘apical vowels’: An articulatory and acoustic study

@article{LeeKim2014RevisitingM,
  title={Revisiting Mandarin ‘apical vowels’: An articulatory and acoustic study},
  author={Sang-Im Lee-Kim},
  journal={Journal of the International Phonetic Association},
  year={2014},
  volume={44},
  pages={261 - 282}
}
  • Sang-Im Lee-Kim
  • Published 25 November 2014
  • Physics
  • Journal of the International Phonetic Association
The present study investigates the articulatory and acoustic properties of the unique apical segments in Mandarin Chinese that occur after dental and retroflex sibilants instead of the high front vowel [i]. An ultrasound study showed that the segments are homorganic with the preceding dental and retroflex sibilants. However, an acoustic study showed that they have a periodic waveform and clear formant structures with no inherent frication noise, indicating that they are not ‘voiced fricatives… 
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Diphthongization and apicalization are two commonly detected phonetic and/or phonological processes for the development of high vowels, with the process of apicalization being of particular
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TLDR
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