Revision of the smiling worms, genus Prosorhochmus Keferstein, 1862, and description of a new species, Prosorhochmus belizeanus sp. nov. (Prosorhochmidae, Hoplonemertea, Nemertea) from Florida and Belize

  title={Revision of the smiling worms, genus Prosorhochmus Keferstein, 1862, and description of a new species, Prosorhochmus belizeanus sp. nov. (Prosorhochmidae, Hoplonemertea, Nemertea) from Florida and Belize},
  author={Svetlana A. Maslakova and Jon L. Norenburg},
  journal={Journal of Natural History},
  pages={1219 - 1260}
A new species of Prosorhochmus is described from Belize and Florida based on morphological, reproductive and sequence data. Similar to Prosorhochmus nelsoni (Sanchez, 1973), Prosorhochmus belizeanus sp. nov. is gonochoric and oviparous; all other species of Prosorhochmus are viviparous hermaphrodites. Prosorhochmus belizeanus sp. nov. differs from P. nelsoni by having significantly larger stylets and different arrangement of acidophilic cephalic glands. Sequence divergence between the two is 7… 

Revision of the smiling worms, genera Prosadenoporus Bürger, 1890 and Pantinonemertes Moore and Gibson, 1981 and description of a new species Prosadenoporus floridensis sp. nov. (Prosorhochmidae; Hoplonemertea; Nemertea) from Florida and Belize

The hoplonemertean genera Prosadenoporus Bürger, 1890 and Pantinonemertes Moore and Gibson, 1981 are revised and synonymized based on a morphological re‐evaluation and a new semi‐terrestrial species is described from Belize and Florida.

Systematics and phylogeny of the hoplonemertean genus Diplomma (Nemertea) based on molecular and morphological evidence

A redescription of the poorly known distromatonemertean Diplomma serpentina (Stimpson, 1855), a species that has not been reported since its original description, and comparison of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences indicates that D. serpentina is distributed in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Japan.

Phylogenetic placement of a new hoplonemertean species commensal on ascidians

The hoplonemertean Vieitezia luzmurubeae, previously mistaken as the Mediterranean species Tetrastemma vittigerum (Burger, 1904), is frequently associated with two common species of sea squirt, Phallusia mamillata (Cuvier, 1815) and Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767), inside which the nemerteans completes its life cycle.

Resolving a 200-year-old taxonomic conundrum: neotype designation for Cephalothrix linearis (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) based on a topotype from Bergen, Norway

This paper redescribes C. linearis based on two topotypes from Bergen, one herein designated as the neotype for C.linearis, and tabulated a total of 36 nominal species that are likely the members of the genus; the following five were excluded even though their specific names were originally combined with Cephalothrix.

Feeding rates of the nemertean Prosorhochmus americanus (Hoplonemertea) on two species of gammaridean amphipods

The results and those of other laboratory investigations suggest that nemerteans that prey on amphipods feed at a rate of ∼0.2 prey items nemertean−1 d−1, but under natural conditions this rate may not be obtained because of limited feeding time, longer foraging distances, and emigration of prey from regions of high nEmertean activity.

First Record for Prosorhochmus americanus ( Nemertea , Hoplonemertea ) in Virginia with Notes on its Natural History and Morphology

The viviparous hoplonemertean Prosorhochmus americanus (Gibson et al.) is documented for the first time in Virginia. The nemertean occurs on the north jetty at Rudee Inlet, Virginia Beach, VA in the

A DNA-based description of a new nemertean (phylum Nemertea) species

The question whether anatomy is in fact the best and most efficient basis for phylogeny and classification is posed, which is pragmatically proposed that nemerteans can be described by a combination of external characters and DNA sequences.

Arenogigas armoricus, a New Genus and Species of a Monostiliferous Hoplonemertean (Nemertea) from the North-West Coast of France

A new genus and species of an endobenthic, unusually large eumonostiliferous hoplonemertean, Arenogigas armoricus gen. et sp. nov., is described from an intertidal sandflat in Pouldohan Bay near

Polymorphism hides cryptic species in Oerstedia dorsalis (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea)

It is concluded that O. dorsalis hides different species with geographic resolution, and no diagnostic features in pigmentation or external characters to separate species within this complex are found.

The invention of the pilidium larva in an otherwise perfectly good spiralian phylum Nemertea.

This review is an attempt to examine the pilidium in the context of recent data on development of non-pilidiophoran nemerteans, and speculate about the evolution of pilidial larval development.



The smile of Amphiporus nelsoni Sanchez, 1973 (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera: Amphiporidae) leads to a redescription and a change in family

Interestingly, Prosorhochmus nelsoni (Sanchez, 1973) is characterized by separate sexes and oviparity, unlike all the other members of the genus, which combine hermaphroditism with ovoviviparity.

The genus Prosorhochmus Keferstein, 1862 (Hoplonemertea)

A diagnosis of the monostiliferous hoplonemertean genus Prosorhochmus is provided and the type-species, P. claparedii, is redescribed and illustrated from Plymouth and Anglesey material; the

Redescription of a brooding nemertine, Cyanophthalma obscura (Schultze) gen. et comb.n., with observations on its biology and discussion of the species of Prostomatella and related taxa * †

A new genus, Cyanophthalma, is erected with the type species Tetrastemma obscura Schultze, 1851, and the characters that form the basis for classifying Monostilifera are assessed for phylogenetic significance.

The Geonemertes problem (Nemertea)

A re‐examination of all the known species of Geonemertes has shown that two major groups can be distinguished on the basis of morphological characters, and a key to the terrestrial, brackish‐water and marine nemertean species described in the present paper is provided.

Description of Poseidonemertes caribensis sp.n., and Discussion of Other Taxa of Hoplonemertini Monostilifera with Divided Longitudinal Musculature in the Body Wall

A monostiliferous hop‐lonemertean, Poseidonemertes caribensissp.n., is described from the Caribbean Sea, where it commonly occurs on marine plants in shallow water. Anatomical examination revealed a

Nemertean genera and species of the world: an annotated checklist of original names and description citations, synonyms, current taxonomic status, habitats and recorded zoogeographic distribution

Names used for nemertean genera and species of the world are listed alpha-betically, with their original description citations, synonymy and current taxonomic status. Though many remain inadequately

Ribbon worm relationships: a phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea

The most extensive phylogenetic analysis to date, to the authors' knowledge, of higher–level nemertean relationships, based on sequence data from four different genes is presented, finding that well–supported clades are, in general, compatible with earlier, more limited, analyses.

A new species of Prosorhochmus (Hoplonemertea, Monostilifera) from the Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean)

A viviparous hoplonemertean, Prosorhochmus chafarinensis sp. nov., is described from the Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean). The species lives in the low eulittoral under the encrusting alga

A new species of Prosorhochmus (Hoplonemertea, Monostilifera) from South Carolina

A new species of ovoviviparous hoplonemertean from South Carolina is described and illustrated and compared and contrasted with the only other validated member of the genus, Prosorhochmus claparedii from European waters.

Synopses of North-American Invertebrates

The whole macrurous fauna of North America north of the southern boundary of the United States and within the hundred-fathom line is included, together with the one given in this journal for September, to include those forms familiarly known as lobsters and crayfishes.