Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission

  title={Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission},
  author={Patrick Saunders-Hastings and Daniel Krewski},
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our… 

Tables from this paper

Understanding dynamics of pandemics

COVID-19 pandemic is very similar to Spanish, Hong Kong, Asian and swine influenza pandemics in terms of spreading to world by the mobilized people and the case definition, proper treatment, sufficient stockpiles of medicine and population cooperation with the containment strategy should be considered for reduction of burden of pandemic.

Pandemics Throughout History

Novel technologies for rapid diagnostic testing, contact tracing, drug repurposing, biomarkers of disease severity as well as new platforms for the development and production of vaccines are needed for an effective response in case of pandemics.

COVID-19 pandemic: lessons learned from more than a century of pandemics and current vaccine development for pandemic control

Pandemics Throughout the History

The review article aims to shed light on some of the deadliest pandemics throughout history, information of critical importance for clinicians and researchers.

A year of terror and a century of reflection: perspectives on the great influenza pandemic of 1918–1919

The pathophysiology associated with the 1918 virus and its predilection for the young and healthy, the rise of influenza therapeutic research following the pandemic, and the level of preparedness for future pandemics are discussed are discussed.

History of Pandemics in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century

This work is the historical analysis of pandemics in the Twentieth and Twenty-first century. It shows that the influenza virus has been responsible for major pandemic outbreaks in the two centuries.

Flashback and lessons learnt from history of pandemics before COVID-19

This review highlights that throughout history measures such as contact tracing, quarantine and isolation have been incredibly effective in limiting an outbreak in its severity, thus ensuring accurate information flow to the public is as essential as limiting the spread of misinformation.

Integrated Risk of Pandemic: Covid-19 Impacts, Resilience and Recommendations

In light of the novel corona virus outbreak in December 2019 and its subsequent impact on entire world as a global pandemic, the book attempts to provide integrated risk assessment on COVID -19 like



The emergence of pandemic influenza viruses

This review summarises the recent literature that describes the evolutionary pathway of the pandemic viruses and discusses the implications of these findings on the early detection and control of future pandemics.

The 1918 influenza pandemic: insights for the 21st century.

This review addresses several questions, concerning pandemic-virus origin, unusual epidemiologic features, and the causes and demographic patterns of fatality of the 1918-1919 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

Are We Ready for Pandemic Influenza?

Here, progress to date in preparedness for an influenza pandemic is considered and what remains to be done is reviewed, with prioritizing the remaining needs and exploring the reasons for the current lack of preparedness.

Paths of Infection: The First World War and the Origins of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

The origin site for the 1918 influenza pandemic which killed more than 50 million people worldwide has been hotly debated. While the mid-western United States, France, and China have all been

The epidemiology and clinical impact of pandemic influenza.

Reactive strategies for containing developing outbreaks of pandemic influenza

Attack rates and economic costs can be reduced when low-coverage reactive vaccination and limited antiviral use are combined with practical, minimally disruptive social distancing strategies, including short-term, as-needed closure of individual schools, even when vaccine supply-chain-related delays occur.

The site of origin of the 1918 influenza pandemic and its public health implications

  • J. Barry
  • Medicine
    Journal of Translational Medicine
  • 2004
The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic killed more people than any other outbreak of disease in human history, and a new review of contemporary medical and lay literature has found previously-overlooked epidemiological evidence that suggests that the pandemic began in a sparsely populated region of southwestern Kansas.

Economic analysis of pandemic influenza mitigation strategies for five pandemic severity categories

This study estimates the effectiveness and total cost of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies, under a range of pandemic severity categories, and finds that for pandemics in high severity categories the strategies with the lowest total cost to society involve rigorous, sustained social Distancing.

Pandemic influenza in 1957; review of international spread of new Asian strain.

  • F. Dunn
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Medical Association
  • 1958
It would seem that the most important timing factor for epidemic occurrence in the equatorial regions was the presence or absence of the virus in sporadic cases, in regions where seasons are well marked the situation was much more complex.

Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic

It is shown that the new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico and the United States was derived from several viruses circulating in swine, and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak.