Review on miniaturized paraffin phase change actuators, valves, and pumps

@article{Ogden2014ReviewOM,
  title={Review on miniaturized paraffin phase change actuators, valves, and pumps},
  author={Sam Ogden and Lena Klintberg and Greger Thornell and Klas Hjort and Roger D. Boden},
  journal={Microfluidics and Nanofluidics},
  year={2014},
  volume={17},
  pages={53-71}
}
During the last 15 years, miniaturized paraffin actuation has evolved through the need of a simple actuation principle, still able to deliver large strokes and high actuation forces at small scales. This is achieved by the large and rather incompressible volume expansion associated with the solid-to-liquid phase transition of paraffin. The common approach has been to encapsulate the paraffin by a stiff surrounding that directs the volume expansion toward a flexible membrane, which deflects in a… Expand
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  • D. Copic, A. Hart
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • ACS applied materials & interfaces
  • 2015
TLDR
It is shown how a CNT-paraffin film can serve as a self-activating thermal interface that closes a gap when it is heated and could be produced by large-area CNT growth, infiltration, and lamination methods, and are attractive for use in miniature systems due to their self-contained design. Expand
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that complex actuation motions can be achieved by incorporating hierarchical-structured nanoporous metal with paraffin, and the stress generated by actuation is negligibly small when the characteristic size of the nanoporous gold is above ∼70 nm, and increases dramatically with a decreasing size when L < ∼70 nm. Expand
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When paraffin wax melts it exhibits a large, relatively incompressible volume expansion. This can be used in microactuators for strong and large displacements, a rare combination among actuators.Expand
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Abstract An actuator that uses the volume expansion related to the solid-to-liquid phase transition of paraffin wax has been fabricated and evaluated. The actuator consists of a ring-shaped paraffinExpand
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