Review of the direct and indirect effects of warming and drought on scale insect pests of forest systems

  title={Review of the direct and indirect effects of warming and drought on scale insect pests of forest systems},
  author={Steven D. Frank},
  journal={Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research},
  • S. Frank
  • Published 4 March 2021
  • Biology
  • Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research
Higher temperatures and drought are key aspects of global change with the potential to alter the distribution and severity of many arthropod pests in forest systems. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) infest many tree species and are among the most important pests of trees in urban and rural forests, plantations and other forest systems. Infestations of native or exotic scale insects can kill or sicken trees with economic and ecosystem-wide consequences. Warming can have direct effects on… 
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