Sunlight photocatalytic degradation of propanil herbicides in aqueous solution determination of degraded products with UV- and HPLC
- Dhahir SA.
- Aust J Basic Appl Sci 5(11):15551560.
Propanil (N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) propanamide; CAS 709-98-8; Figure 1) is a synthetic anilide herbicide used to control grasses and broad-leaf weeds primarily during the production of rice. Propanil is registered as a restricted material in California for use on rice and other field crops under the trade names Duet, Riceshot, Stam 80, Superwham! , and Willowood. Its major degradate, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), has similar toxicity to that of propanil and is often found in the environment. However, this degradate is an intermediate used in the manufacturing of herbicides such as diuron, linuron and propanil (Crossland 1990), thus its detection in the environment may not always be directly related to one of those herbicides. A review of the environmental fate and ecotoxicology of propanil has been published in 2016 by Kanawi et al. Here, I summarized the environmental fate and toxicology of propanil and reviewed its use and environmental detections in California.