Review of manufacturing processes for soft biomimetic robots

  title={Review of manufacturing processes for soft biomimetic robots},
  author={Kyu-Jin Cho and Je-sung Koh and Sangwoo Kim and Won-Shik Chu and Yongtaek Hong and Sung-hoon Ahn},
  journal={International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing},
This paper reviews various processes for manufacturing new type of robots termed “soft biomimetic robots.” Most robots are made of rigid metallic materials. But in recent years, various biomimetic robots based on soft materials and compliant parts have been developed. New manufacturing processes are required to fabricate these types of robots, and the processes include Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) and Smart Composite Microstructures (SCM). Since the design of robots are limited by the… 
Soft Robots Manufacturing: A Review
This review puts in light the elementary components that can be used to develop soft actuators, whether they use fluids, shape memory alloys, electro-active polymers or stimuli-responsive materials, and the manufacturing methods used to build complete soft structures.
Design Methodologies for Soft-Material Robots Through Additive Manufacturing, From Prototyping to Locomotion
Soft material robots have gained interest in recent years due to the mechanical potential of non-rigid materials and technological development in the additive manufacturing (3D printing) techniques.
3D printing of soft robotic systems
This Review examines the essential soft material properties for different elements of soft robots, highlighting the most relevant polymer systems and discusses advances in 3D printing technologies and soft materials for the fabrication of soft robotic systems with sophisticated capabilities, such as 3D movement and responsiveness to the environment.
Hybrid 3D Printing and Casting Manufacturing Process for Fabrication of Smart Soft Composite Actuators
Intricate deflection requires many conventional actuators (motors, pistons etc.), which can be financially and spatially wasteful. Novel smart soft composite (SSC) actuators have been suggested, but
Flexoskeleton Printing Enables Versatile Fabrication of Hybrid Soft and Rigid Robots.
This study modifying a consumer-grade fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer to deposit filament directly onto a heated thermoplastic base layer, which provides extremely strong bond strength between deposited material and the inextensible, flexible base layer enables a new class of insect-inspired robot morphologies.
Biomedical soft robots: current status and perspective
The current status of soft robots in biomedical field, including modeling, controls, actuation, fabrication and application, as well as their limitations and future work is reviewed.
4D Printing Dielectric Elastomer Actuator Based Soft Robots
4D printing is an emerging technology that prints 3D structural smart materials that can respond to external stimuli and change shape over time. 4D printing represents a major manufacturing paradigm
Flexoskeleton printing for versatile insect-inspired robots
A consumer-grade fused deposition material (FDM) 3D printer is modified to deposit filament directly onto a heated thermoplastic base layer which provides extremely strong bond strength between the deposited material and the inextensible, flexible base layer, enabling a new class of insect-inspired robot morphologies called flexoskeleton printing.
Cockroach Milli-Robot With Improved Load Capacity
  • D. Yun, R. Fearing
  • Materials Science, Engineering
    Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics
  • 2019
This paper modified the kinematics of the robot to reduce off-axis loading on flexure joints by using a planar 6 bar leg mechanism, which was fabricated using a new multilayer SCM process, and the fabrication process is improved to reduce peeling of laminate structures by introducing integrated rivets at joints.
Surface and Shape Deposition Manufacturing for the Fabrication of a Curved Surface Gripper
Biological systems such as the gecko are complex, involving a wide variety of materials and length scales. Bio-inspired robotic systems seek to emulate this complexity, leading to manufacturing


Fast and Robust: Hexapedal Robots via Shape Deposition Manufacturing
Robots to date lack the robustness and performance of even the simplest animals when operating in unstructured environments. This observation has prompted an interest in biomimetic robots that take
Design, Fabrication and Performances of a Biomimetic Robotic Earthworm
The design and development of a microrobot which aims to replicate the locomotion principle of earthworms is presented and preliminary tests demonstrate that the maximum speed of earthworm prototypes can reach 0.22mm/s without micro-legs and 2.5 mm/s with micro-Legs, thus approximating the behavior of biological earthworms.
Micro actuators on the basis of thin SMA foils
Three innovative micro actuator concepts on the basis of the differential SMA principle are presented in this paper: a high adaptive multi-actuator system, which is driven by numerous identical
Microrobot Design Using Fiber Reinforced Composites
Mobile microrobots with characteristic dimensions on the order of 1 cm are difficult to design using either microelectromechanical systems technology or precision machining. This is due to the
Multi‐nozzle deposition for construction of 3D biopolymer tissue scaffolds
This system is capable of, simultaneously with scaffold construction, depositing controlled amount of cells, growth factors, or other bioactive compounds with precise spatial position to form complex cell‐seeded tissue constructs.
Shape Deposition Manufacturing
The current research in Shape Deposition incorporates the advantages of several processes including solid freeform fabrication (complex geometries, rapidly planned), 5-axis CNC machining (accuracy, smooth surfaces), shot-peening (for stress relief) and 'microcasting' (a high-performance, weldbased material deposition process).
Design, fabrication and analysis of a body-caudal fin propulsion system for a microrobotic fish
The design and fabrication of a centimeter-scale propulsion system for a robotic fish using SMA spring actuators and a body frame that is simple and compact is presented.
Fabrication of micro parts using nano composite deposition system
Purpose – The purpose of this research, is to develop a nano composite deposition system (NCDS) to fabricate three dimensional functional nano composite parts.Design/methodology/approach – The NCDS
A robust compliant grasper via shape deposition manufacturing
  • A. Dollar, R. Howe
  • Engineering, Materials Science
    IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
  • 2006
Joint compliance can enable successful robot grasping despite uncertainties in target object location. Compliance also enhances manipulator robustness by minimizing contact forces in the event of
Conformable, flexible, large-area networks of pressure and thermal sensors with organic transistor active matrixes.
  • T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sakurai
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
This work has successfully developed conformable, flexible, large-area networks of thermal and pressure sensors based on an organic semiconductor, and, by means of laminated sensor networks, the distributions of pressure and temperature are simultaneously obtained.