Review of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: Their potential human health impact

@article{Kim2016ReviewOE,
  title={Review of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: Their potential human health impact},
  author={Ki-Hyun Kim and Ehsanul Kabir and Shamin Ara Jahan},
  journal={Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C},
  year={2016},
  volume={34},
  pages={262 - 275}
}
ABSTRACT Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of… Expand
Oral Carcinoma Associated with Chronic Use of Electronic Cigarettes
TLDR
Two cases of oral carcinoma associated with chronic use of E-cigarettes are reported and highlight the need for increased awareness of this important, and potentially fatal, risk. Expand
E-cigarettes and cigarettes worsen peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial stiffness: A randomized, double-blinded pilot study
TLDR
In this first of its kind trial, changes in peripheral and central blood pressure and also in pulse wave velocity after smoking a cigarette as well as after vaping a nicotine-containing electronic cigarette are observed and may be associated with an increased long-term cardiovascular risk. Expand
Puff-resolved analysis and selected quantification of chemicals in the gas phase of E-Cigarettes, Heat-not-Burn devices and conventional cigarettes using single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS): A comparative study.
TLDR
The data shows that consumers switching from CC to ANDD are exposed to lower concentrations of harmful and potentially harmful substances, however, toxicological and epidemiological studies must deliver conclusive results if these reduced exposures are beneficial for users. Expand
E-cigs . . . Are They Cool? Talking to Teens About E-Cigarettes
TLDR
The basics of e-cigarettes and potential health hazards are outlined, followed by selected literature on teens’ perceptions of E-cigarettes, as well as motivational interviewing strategies that can be used in talking to teens about using electronic cigarettes. Expand
Heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni) in aerosols emitted from electronic cigarettes sold in Malaysia
TLDR
Five out of 100 combinations of ECIG and ECIG liquids were found to emit Cr that exceed the recommended PDE, and future studies examining more heavy metal variants, using a larger sample size and different analytical techniques to compare various ECIGs are recommended. Expand
Oral mucosal lesions in electronic cigarettes consumers versus former smokers
TLDR
An increased prevalence of three specific types of OMLs was detected among ECs consumers. Expand
Evaluation of e-liquid toxicity using an open-source high-throughput screening assay
TLDR
The data suggest that an HTS approach to evaluate the toxicity of multiple e-liquids is feasible and may serve as a roadmap to enable bodies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to better regulate e-liquid composition. Expand
Analysis of the elements and metals in multiple generations of electronic cigarette atomizers.
TLDR
Evaluated atomizer components in ECs were remarkably similar over time and between brands, and certain elements/metals should be studied carefully to determine if their transfer to aerosols affects user's health and if their accumulation in trash affects the environment. Expand
Ocular conditions and dry eye due to traditional and new forms of smoking: A review.
TLDR
It is concluded that smoking and vaping appear as a risk factor for the aforementioned ocular diseases: cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and Graves' ophthalmopathy. Expand
Mitochondrial Stress Response in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes
TLDR
It is shown that the mechanism underlying EC-induced stem cell toxicity is stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion (SIMH), a transient survival response accompanied by increased mitochondrial oxidative stress, now widely available in EC refill fluids and in pure form for do-it-yourself EC products. Expand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES
Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes
TLDR
There have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. Expand
E-cigarettes: promise or peril?
  • E. Russi
  • Medicine
  • Swiss medical weekly
  • 2015
TLDR
The motivation for e-cigarette use in smokers was the intention to reduce tobacco consumption in 43% and to quit smoking in 8%. Expand
Flavorings in electronic cigarettes: an unrecognized respiratory health hazard?
TLDR
The long-term safety of ENDS is uncertain, and there is concern that ENDS may be used by nonsmoking adolescents and young adults who might not otherwise have used nicotine-delivering products, and that dual use may follow. Expand
Chemical hazards present in liquids and vapors of electronic cigarettes
TLDR
The data demonstrate the necessity of standardized machine smoking protocols to reliably address putative risks of e-cigarettes for consumers and the formation of carbonylic compounds in one widely distributed nicotine-free brand. Expand
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers.
TLDR
E-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. Expand
Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes
TLDR
The findings of this study are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. Expand
Environmental health hazards of e-cigarettes and their components: Oxidants and copper in e-cigarette aerosols.
TLDR
The detection of a potentially cytotoxic metal as well as oxidant reactivity in disposable components of ENDS/e-cigarettes (batteries and cartomizers) using a fluorescein indicator raises concern regarding the safety of e-cigarettes use and the disposal of E-cigarette waste products into the environment. Expand
The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes
TLDR
The health effects of using electronic cigarettes are examined, with consideration given to the acceptability, safety and effectiveness of this product to serve as a long-term substitute for smoking or as a tool for smoking cessation. Expand
Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes : a systematic review
• As professional toxicologists interested in improving testing methods for assessing the safety to humans of chemicals, we starting collaborating with the tobacco industry, to help identifyExpand
E-cigarettes and cardiovascular risk: beyond science and mysticism.
TLDR
As the use of e-cigarettes is continuously rising, and it is also considered a potentially effective method for smoking cessation, more focused research is urgently needed to definitely establish the cardiovascular safeness of these devices. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...