Review article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract

  title={Review article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract},
  author={Sandra Macfarlane and George T. Macfarlane and John H. Cummings},
  journal={Alimentary Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
Prebiotics are short‐chain carbohydrates that alter the composition, or metabolism, of the gut microbiota in a beneficial manner. It is therefore expected that prebiotics will improve health in a way similar to probiotics, whilst at the same time being cheaper, and carrying less risk and being easier to incorporate into the diet than probiotics. 
Prebiotics and health: Clinical implications
The preliminary finding of several recent human clinical trials indicates that prebiotics may indeed prove to be beneficial dietry supplement, in the context of novel nutritional strategies for the management.
The Importance of Prebiotics in Functional Foods and Clinical Practice
A discussion of prebiotics, with descriptions of the concepts and its use in clinical practice, and a review of some recent research showing the benefits that these ingredients provide to human health and providing data on the recommended intakes for consumption are presented.
Metabolic adaptation of colonic microbiota to galactooligosaccharides: a proof‐of‐concept‐study
Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas‐related symptoms.
Review article: probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome
  • R. Spiller
  • Medicine
    Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • 2008
A disturbance of this relationship in irritable bowel syndrome and the potential to correct this using prebiotics and probiotics is suggested.
Review article: dietary fibre–microbiota interactions
Diet, in particular plant‐based fibre, appears critical in influencing the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiome, determining levels of short‐chain fatty acids important for intestinal health.
Dysbiosis, Probiotics, Synbiotics and Human Health
The manuscript aims to project handy information on intricacies and interwoven of the ecosystem of gut-dysbiosis, and probiotics and synbiotics, with human health, and paves the way for better management of human health with Probiotics and Synbiotics therapy, in diverse domain.
Lactic Acid Bacteria and Gut Health
Over a century ago, the Nobel Laureate Elie Metchnikoff hypothesized that introducing lactic acid bacterium into the intestines might improve human health. The gut microbial dysbiosis has been
Prebiotics in Chronic Infl ammatory Bowel Diseases
The microbiome appears to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD in genetically susceptible individuals and stimulation of both local and systemic immunity is suggested.


A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers’ diarrhoea
: Prebiotic carbohydrates selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human colon. These bacteria form part of the gut’s inherent defence against invading pathogens.
Failure of dietary oligofructose to prevent antibiotic‐associated diarrhoea
This data indicates that high bifidobacteria concentrations in the colon are important in providing ‘colonization resistance’ against pathogenic bacteria.
Supply of Pre‐ and Probiotics Reduces Bacterial Infection Rates After Liver Transplantation—A Randomized, Double‐Blind Trial
  • N. Rayes, D. Seehofer, P. Neuhaus
  • Medicine
    American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • 2005
The aim is to study if a combination of different LAB and fibers would further improve outcome, which recently reported significant progress with a synbiotic composition, consisting of one lactic acid bacteria and one fiber.
Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics
Prebiotic carbohydrates clearly have significant and distinctive physiological effects in the human large intestine, and on the basis of this it is likely that they will ultimately be shown to be beneficial to health.
Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics.
By combining the rationale of pro- and prebiotics, the concept of synbiotics is proposed to characterize some colonic foods with interesting nutritional properties that make these compounds candidates for classification as health-enhancing functional food ingredients.
Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections
The combined effects of prebiotics upon the lactic acid flora and anti-adhesive strategies may lead towards new dietary interventions against food safety agents.
Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.
Inulin-type fructans are functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.
Fate of fructo-oligosaccharides in the human intestine
It is concluded that fructo-oligosaccharides added to the diet of young Western subjects are fully metabolized in the large intestine, and the level of fermentation seem to be dose-dependent.
Role of Activity of Gastrointestinal Microflora in Absorption of Calcium and Magnesium in Rats Fed β1-4 Linked Galactooligosaccharides
It is suggested that the action of intestinal bacteria is necessary for the effects of GOS, and the decrease in cecal pH in rats fed GOS was suppressed by neomycin-feeding.
Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons.
Inulin showed a better laxative effect than lactose and reduced functional constipation with only mild discomfort and SCFAs showed a slight trend toward higher molar ratios of acetate to butyrate in response to the intake of lactose or inulin.