Review article: fructose malabsorption and the bigger picture

@article{Gibson2007ReviewAF,
  title={Review article: fructose malabsorption and the bigger picture},
  author={Peter R. Gibson and E D Newnham and Jacqueline Susanne Barrett and Susan Joy Shepherd and Jane G. Muir},
  journal={Alimentary Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
  year={2007},
  volume={25}
}
Fructose is found widely in the diet as a free hexose, as the disaccharide, sucrose and in a polymerized form (fructans). Free fructose has limited absorption in the small intestine, with up to one half of the population unable to completely absorb a load of 25 g. Average daily intake of fructose varies from 11 to 54 g around the world. Fructans are not hydrolysed or absorbed in the small intestine. 
Clinical ramifications of malabsorption of fructose and other short-chain carbohydrates
TLDR
Fructose has created much interest because of its pos-sible role in contributing to the obesity epidemic in the USA and for its postulated role in inducing func-tional gut symptoms.
Fructose-sorbitol malabsorption
TLDR
Evidence from uncontrolled and controlled challenge studies suggests that malabsorbed sugars (fructose, sorbitol, lactose, and fructans) may act as dietary triggers for clinical symptoms suggestive of IBS.
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TLDR
Until the authors have further mechanistic insight, restricting dietary fructose intake and other poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols remains an efficacious approach for managing functional gastrointestinal symptoms.
[Fructose and fructose intolerance].
TLDR
The cornerstone of dietary management for fructose intolerance is the individual reduction of fructose intake and the FODMAP diet, led by a trained dietetician, and the newly introduced xylose-isomerase is efficient in reducing the symptoms of fructose intolerance.
Dietary fructose intolerance in children and adolescents
TLDR
The abdominal pain, bloating and alteration of bowel habits associated with dietary fructose intolerance are under-recognised in adult patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome.
Short-Chain Carbohydrates and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
TLDR
There is now an accumulating body of evidence that supports the notion that FODMAPs trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders, and that a diet low in FodMAPs offers considerable symptom relief in the majority of patients who use it.
Disorders of Fructose Metabolism
TLDR
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is also usually considered an inborn error of fructose metabolism although, strictly speaking, it is a defect of gluconeogenesis.
Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.
Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose with and without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion
TLDR
Clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake are reviewed and information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided.
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