Review article: Earth's ice imbalance

@article{Slater2020ReviewAE,
  title={Review article: Earth's ice imbalance},
  author={Thomas Slater and Isobel R. Lawrence and In{\`e}s N. Otosaka and Andrew Shepherd and Noel Gourmelen and Livia Jakob and Paul Tepes and Lin Gilbert and Peter Nienow},
  journal={The Cryosphere},
  year={2020}
}
Abstract. We combine satellite observations and numerical models to show that Earth lost 28 trillion tonnes of ice between 1994 and 2017. Arctic sea ice (7.6 trillion tonnes), Antarctic ice shelves (6.5 trillion tonnes), mountain glaciers (6.1 trillion tonnes), the Greenland ice sheet (3.8 trillion tonnes), the Antarctic ice sheet (2.5 trillion tonnes), and Southern Ocean sea ice (0.9 trillion tonnes) have all decreased in mass. Just over half (58 %) of the ice loss was from the Northern… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Sea ice decline drives biogeographical shifts of key Calanus species in the central Arctic Ocean
TLDR
It is suggested that the core distribution patterns of these key zooplankton are shifting northwards with retreating sea ice and changing climate conditions, suggesting that these two species substantially overlap in their core distribution area in the Arctic Ocean.
A Novel Approach to Map the Intensity of Surface Melting on the Antarctica Ice Sheet using SMAP L-Band Microwave Radiometry
Abstract. The polar ice sheets have undergone unprecedented melt events in the recent past, which have consequences for ice sheet mass balance, stability, and sea level. In this study, we employed
Recent Ice Trends in Swiss Mountain Lakes: 20-year Analysis of MODIS Imagery
TLDR
This paper focuses on observing the LIP events such as freeze-up, break-up and temporal freeze extent in the Oberengadin region of Switzerland, where there are several small and medium-sized mountain lakes, across two decades (2000-2020) from optical satellite images.
Last interglacial (MIS 5e) sea level proxies in the glaciated Northern Hemisphere
Abstract. Because global sea level during the last interglacial (LIG; 130–115 ka) was higher than today, the LIG is a useful analogue for improving predictions of future sea level rise. Here, we
Global sea-level budget and ocean-mass budget, with focus on advanced data products and uncertainty characterisation
Abstract. Studies of the global sea-level budget (SLB) and the global ocean-mass budget (OMB) are essential to assess the reliability of our knowledge of sea-level change and its contributions. Here
Last interglacial sea-level proxies in the glaciated Northern Hemisphere
Abstract. Because global sea level during the last interglacial (LIG; 130–115 ka) was higher than today, the LIG is a useful approximate analogue for improving predictions of future sea-level rise.
Spatially and temporally resolved ice loss in High Mountain Asia and the Gulf of Alaska observed by CryoSat-2 swath altimetry
Glaciers are currently the largest contributor to sea level rise after ocean thermal expansion, contributing 30 % to the sea level budget. Global monitoring of these regions remains a challenging
Spatially and temporally resolved ice loss in High Mountain Asia and the Gulf of Alaska observed by CryoSat-2 swath altimetry between 2010 and 2019
Abstract. Glaciers are currently the largest contributor to sea level rise after ocean thermal expansion, contributing ∼  30 % to the sea level budget. Global monitoring of these regions remains a
Ice Sheet Surface and Subsurface Melt Water Discrimination Using Multi‐Frequency Microwave Radiometry
For understanding englacial hydrology and its impact on ice sheet mass balance, observations of the liquid water content (LWC) within the ice sheets are needed. We combined 1.4–10.7 GHz passive
Regional Assessments of Surface Ice Elevations from Swath-Processed CryoSat-2 SARIn Data
TLDR
This study derives ice-surface elevations from the swath processing of CryoSat-2 SARIn data, and evaluates the results in several Arctic regions, highlighting the importance of selecting an appropriate coherence threshold for the swath processor.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 118 REFERENCES
Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017
TLDR
This work combines satellite observations of its changing volume, flow and gravitational attraction with modelling of its surface mass balance to show that the Antarctic Ice Sheet lost 2,720 ± 1,390 billion tonnes of ice between 1992 and 2017, which corresponds to an increase in mean sea level of 7.6‚¬3.9 millimetres.
A Reconciled Estimate of Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise: 2003 to 2009
TLDR
It is found that glaciers in the Arctic, Canada, Alaska, coastal Greenland, the southern Andes, and high-mountain Asia contribute approximately as much melt water as the ice sheets themselves: 260 billion tons per year between 2003 and 2009, accounting for about 30% of the observed sea-level rise during that period.
Mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2018
  • Andrew Erik Eric Ben Michiel Isabella Pippa Kate Ian Gerh Shepherd Ivins Rignot Smith van den Broeke Velicog, A. Shepherd, J. Wuite
  • Environmental Science
    Nature
  • 2019
TLDR
Comparing and combining 26 individual satellite measurements of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet’s volume, flow and gravitational potential to produce a reconciled estimate of its mass balance produces comparable results that approach the trajectory of the highest rates of sea-level rise projected by the IPCC.
Volume loss from Antarctic ice shelves is accelerating
TLDR
Satellite data is presented showing that ice shelves in many regions around the edge of Antarctica are losing mass, which increases concern about how fast sea level might rise as climate continues to warm.
Changing state of Arctic sea ice across all seasons
The decline in the floating sea ice cover in the Arctic is one of the most striking manifestations of climate change. In this review, we examine this ongoing loss of Arctic sea ice across all
Melting of ice shelves and the mass balance of Antarctica
Abstract We calculate the present ice budget for Antarctica from measurements of accumulation minus iceberg calving, run-off and in situ melting beneath the floating ice shelves. The resulting
Trends in Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass
Fluctuations in Antarctic Ice Sheet elevation and mass occur over a variety of time scales, owing to changes in snowfall and ice flow. Here we disentangle these signals by combining 25 years of
Ice-Sheet Response to Oceanic Forcing
TLDR
Current observations establish a clear correspondence between the increased delivery of oceanic heat to the ice-sheet margin and increased ice loss, much of which is a response to oceanic forcing, especially of the floating ice shelves.
An improved mass budget for the Greenland ice sheet
Extensive ice thickness surveys by NASA's Operation IceBridge enable over a decade of ice discharge measurements at high precision for the majority of Greenland's marine‐terminating outlet glaciers,
Forty-six years of Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance from 1972 to 2018
TLDR
Even in years of high SMB, enhanced glacier discharge has remained sufficiently high above equilibrium to maintain an annual mass loss every year since 1998, and the acceleration in mass loss switched from positive in 2000–2010 to negative in 2010–2018, which illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating short records into longer-term trends.
...
...