Review Article: Systemic conditions associated with areca nut usage: A literature review

@article{Javed2010ReviewAS,
  title={Review Article: Systemic conditions associated with areca nut usage: A literature review},
  author={F. Javed and Fernanda O Bello Correra and Milisha Chotai and Anwar R Tappuni and Khalid Almas},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Public Health},
  year={2010},
  volume={38},
  pages={838 - 844}
}
Aim: The adverse effects of areca nut (AN) chewing habit on oral health have been reported. However, the hazards related to the habit are not restricted to the oral cavity but they can also jeopardise the systemic health. Since no review reporting the harmful effects of AN chewing on systemic health is yet available, the aim of the present study was to review the systemic conditions associated with AN usage. Methods: To address the focused question ‘‘What are the deleterious effects of AN usage… 
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References

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Areca nut chewing and mortality in an elderly cohort study.
TLDR
It is found that, although betel quid chewing resulted in a statistically significant increase in the risk of total and cerebrovascular deaths in the elderly population, the associations were weak and should be interpreted with caution.
A population-based study of the association between betel-quid chewing and the metabolic syndrome in men.
TLDR
Independent predictive dose-response effects of betel-quid chewing for the metabolic syndrome and its components in a population-based study of men with a 15% prevalence of betle-nut chewing suggest dose- response effects.
Betel-quid use is associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in adults.
TLDR
The daily rate of betel-quid use is independently and positively associated with the metabolic syndrome in adults and was not associated with low HDL cholesterol or hyperglycemia.
Acute Toxicities of Betel Nut: Rare but Probably Overlooked Events
TLDR
Although betel nut chewing is widespread, significant toxicity as reported to a poison center is rare and the incidence of such events is likely to be underreported.
Association between betel-nut chewing and chronic kidney disease in men
TLDR
The association between betel-nut use and CKD is independent of age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.
Association Between Betelnut Chewing and Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults
TLDR
Betelnut use is associated with chronic kidney disease in adults younger than 65 and multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, and diabetes found it independently associated with CKD.
Periodontal conditions and oral symptoms in gutka-chewers with and without type 2 diabetes
TLDR
In subjects without T2D, gutka-chewers have severe periodontal conditions and oral symptoms compared to non-Chewers, while in subjects with T1D, the severity of these variables is related to glycemic levels rather than gutka consumption.
Betel nut chewing is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men.
TLDR
Greater frequency of betel nut chewing was associated with greater CVD and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men, and an anti-betel nut chewers program is urgently warranted for current chewers.
Betel-quid use is associated with heart disease in women.
TLDR
Betel-quid use is independently associated with heart disease in women, and nonpregnant adults aged 20-64 y from the nationally representative Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan were studied for independent associations.
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