Review: The involvement of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in reported sexual assaults: a systematic review

  title={Review: The involvement of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in reported sexual assaults: a systematic review},
  author={Zs{\'o}fia N{\'e}meth and Bernadette Kun and Zsolt Demetrovics},
  journal={Journal of Psychopharmacology},
  pages={1281 - 1287}
Over the past few years gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has generated widespread media interest as a possible ‘date rape drug'. Our goal was to examine the extent to which GHB is associated with drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Literature was searched systematically and 11 studies, published between 1961 and June 30, 2009, were identified dealing specifically with the role of GHB in sexual assaults. GHB was detected in 0.2—4.4% of reported sexual assaults. The results demonstrate that a wide range… 

GHB-involved crimes among intoxicated patients.

Deaths in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender United Kingdom Communities Associated with GHB and Precursors.

Significant caution is needed when ingesting GHB/GBL, particularly with alcohol, benzodiazepines, stimulants, and ketamine, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in recreational and sexual settings.

Enhancing sexual desire and experience: an investigation of the sexual correlates of gamma‐hydroxybutyrate (GHB) use

This study aims to explore GHB's sexual effects, the patterns of choice of sexual partners, the frequency of experienced blackouts, and endured sexual or acquisitory crimes as a result of GHB use.


It is concluded that the core of prevention of date rape remains education to increase public awareness of DFSA by both medical health professionals and parents.

Drugs Used in Sexual Assaults: Features and Toxicological Investigations

A general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault is presented, which shows that most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly and rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration.



Involvement of drugs in sexual assault.

  • L. Slaughter
  • Medicine
    The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • 2000
Findings support prior data indicating that alcohol, marijuana and/or other drugs are important risk factors in sexual assault and programs that serve victims should modify protocols to reflect this.

Trends in the use of alcohol and other drugs in cases of sexual assault

Assessment of the extent to which different drugs were present in the urinalysis of samples supplied by victims of rape where drugs were allegedly involved indicates that there is no evidence of widespread misuse of flunitrazepam in sexual assault.

Sexual assaults facilitated by drugs or alcohol

Monitoring DFSA will require a raft of changes, including improved methods of forensic analysis and training for police and hospital emergency staff, and better monitoring of drug- and alcohol-facilitated sexual assault.

Use, function, and subjective experiences of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).

Drugs used in acquaintance rape.

  • K. M. Smith
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association
  • 1999

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus

Drug-facilitated sexual assault involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

The first case involving an alleged sexual assault linked to the use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in Oklahoma is reported and the analytical method used for identifying and quantitating GHB can be applied to matters of forensic interests.

Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault.

This study indicates that the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and GHB in alleged sexual assault cases, and suggests the need to test for a range of drugs in these cases.

Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

The most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose.

Forensic urinalysis of drug use in cases of alleged sexual assault.

The extensive forensic database examined here does not support the concept of a commonly occurring 'date rape' scenario, in which the victim's drink is covertly 'spiked' with a tablet, capsule or powder containing a sedative-hypnotic.