Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification

  title={Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification},
  author={R. Albright and L. Caldeira and J. Hosfelt and L. Kwiatkowski and Jana K. Maclaren and B. Mason and Yana Nebuchina and Aaron T Ninokawa and J. Pongratz and K. Ricke and Tanya Rivlin and K. Schneider and Marine Sesbo{\"u}{\'e} and K. Shamberger and J. Silverman and K. Wolfe and Kai Zhu and K. Caldeira},
Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification… Expand
Carbon dioxide addition to coral reef waters suppresses net community calcification
This estimate provides evidence that near-future reductions in the aragonite saturation state will compromise the ecosystem function of coral reefs, and is the first to be based on a controlled experiment in the natural environment. Expand
Community production modulates coral reef pH and the sensitivity of ecosystem calcification to ocean acidification
Coral reefs are built of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced biogenically by a diversity of calcifying plants, animals, and microbes. As the ocean warms and acidifies, there is mounting concern thatExpand
Ocean Acidification and Coral Bleaching
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The Risk of Ocean Acidification to Ocean Ecosystems
Ocean acidification is a process that refers to major changes to the ocean’s carbonate chemistry, mainly caused by ocean uptake of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. This process involves aExpand
Living coral tissue slows skeletal dissolution related to ocean acidification
It is suggested that areas of the reef with relatively low coral mortality, where living coral cover is high, are likely to be resistant to carbon dioxide-induced reef dissolution, and elevated carbon dioxide impairs net calcification of living corals and may accelerate dissolution of dead corals. Expand
Low and variable ecosystem calcification in a coral reef lagoon under natural acidification
Laboratory-based CO2 experiments and studies of naturally low pH coral reef ecosystems reveal negative impacts of ocean acidification on the calcifying communities that build coral reefs. Conversely,Expand
Interannual stability of organic to inorganic carbon production on a coral atoll
Ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect marine calcifying organisms, with substantial ocean ecosystem impacts projected over the 21st century. Characterizing the in situ sensitivityExpand
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Gnet was depressed under elevated pCO2 over 4 months, although the magnitude of the response varied over time, and underscores the challenges of scaling-up experimental results on the effects of p CO2 from coral reef organisms to coral reef communities. Expand
Emergent constraint on Arctic Ocean acidification in the twenty-first century
Greater regional anthropogenic carbon storage and ocean acidification than previously projected is indicated and the probability that large parts of the mesopelagic Arctic Ocean will be undersaturated with respect to calcite by the end of the century is increased. Expand
Shifts in coralline algae, macroalgae, and coral juveniles in the Great Barrier Reef associated with present-day ocean acidification.
Data from three independent large-scale reef monitoring programs are used to assess coral reef responses associated with changes in mean aragonite saturation state in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and suggest a tipping point at 3.5-3.6 for these coral reef health indicators. Expand


Impacts of ocean acidification in naturally variable coral reef flat ecosystems
Ocean acidification leads to changes in marine carbonate chemistry that are predicted to cause a decline in future coral reef calcification. Several laboratory and mesocosm experiments have describedExpand
Ocean acidification and coral reefs: effects on breakdown, dissolution, and net ecosystem calcification.
It is proposed that standardized NEC rates combined with observed changes in the ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon to total alkalinity owing to net reef metabolism may provide a biogeochemical tool to monitor the effects of OA in coral reef environments. Expand
Dynamics of seawater carbonate chemistry, production, and calcification of a coral reef flat, central Great Barrier Reef
Ocean acidification is projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. Presently, our ability to predict global-scale changes to coral reefExpand
Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.
The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research. Expand
Coral reef metabolism and carbon chemistry dynamics of a coral reef flat
Global carbon emissions continue to acidify the oceans, motivating growing concern for the ability of coral reefs to maintain net positive calcification rates. Efforts to develop robust relationshipsExpand
Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes
Fabry, V. J., Seibel, B. A., Feely, R. A., and Orr, J. C. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 414-432.Oceanic uptake ofExpand
New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change
Abstract The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy ofExpand
Risks to coral reefs from ocean carbonate chemistry changes in recent earth system model projections
Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Today they are threatened by numerous stressors, including warming ocean waters and coastal pollution. Here we focus on theExpand
Natural in situ relationships suggest coral reef calcium carbonate production will decline with ocean acidification
There are few in situ studies showing how net community calcification (Gnet) of coral reefs is related to carbonate chemistry, and the studies to date have demonstrated different predicted rates ofExpand
Declining Coral Calcification on the Great Barrier Reef
Investigation of massive Porites corals from 69 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia suggests that increasing temperature stress and a declining saturation state of seawater aragonite may be diminishing the ability of GBR corals to deposit calcium carbonate. Expand