The purpose of this study was to examine whether retrograded tapioca starch (RS3-tapioca) prevents ovarian hormone deficiency-induced hypercholesterolemia. Six-month-old Wistar female rats were subjected to sham-operation or ovariectomy, and fed a cholesterol-free purified diet with or without RS3-tapioca (150 g/kg diet) instead of digestible cornstarch for 28 d. Body weight gain and food intake increased in ovariectomized rats (OVX-rats). Plasma total cholesterol concentration was lowered by RS3-tapioca in OVX rats, but not in sham-operated rats. Liver lipids increased in OVX-rats, but liver cholesterol concentration was not affected by ovariectomy and RS3-tapioca. CYP7A1 activity, small intestinal and cecal bile acid content, and fecal bile acid excretion were increased by RS3-tapioca. The ratio of cholic acid groups to chenodeoxycholic acid groups in the bile acid of the small intestine was increased by RS3-tapioca. Thus, the preventive effect of RS3-tapioca on the ovarian hormone deficiency-associated increase in plasma cholesterol concentration appears to be mediated by accelerated fecal excretion of bile acid and an increase in the intestinal pool of bile acid.