Retrograde flow in the left gonadal vein at abdominal angiography: an anatomo-physiological review and clinical assessment.

Abstract

Retrograde flow in the left gonadal vein may be visualized in the venous phase of aortography or renal arteriography. In none of 13 cases was this due to a mass lesion at the renal hilum. Although the Valsalva maneuver may cause this flow reversal in some, in most cases it is due to anatomical structures or variants compressing the renal vein. These are… (More)

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