Retrograde endoscopic balloon dilation of chemotherapy- and radiation-induced esophageal stenosis under direct visualization.

INTRODUCTION Esophageal stricture is a common complication following combined chemotherapy and radiation for advanced oropharyngeal cancer and severely compromises patients' quality of life. The severity of the stenosis after concomitant therapy, combined with the proximal location of these strictures, renders standard bougienage techniques difficult, and… (More)