Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.

  title={Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.},
  author={Jason C. K. Chan and Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. General},
  volume={135 4},
Classroom exams can assess students' knowledge of only a subset of the material taught in a course. What are the implications of this approach for long-term retention? Three experiments (N = 210) examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested. Experiment 1 shows that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material. This facilitation was not seen for participants given additional study opportunities without initial… 
Benefits of testing for nontested information: Retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material
The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context, and suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has been suggested.
Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing?
The results suggest that it may be more fruitful to test students after than before exposure to learning content, as post-testing promoted knowledge transfer to previously untested questions, whereas pre-testing did not.
Mechanisms behind the testing effect: an empirical investigation of retrieval practice in meaningful learning
It is found that testing helps learning when learners must invest substantial mental effort, as suggested by the elaborative retrieval theory, and for educational purposes, testing tasks should be assigned that require the learners to invest substantialmental effort.
Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying.
  • A. C. Butler
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2010
Repeated testing produced superior retention and transfer on the final test relative to repeated studying, indicating that the mnemonic benefits of test-enhanced learning are not limited to the retention of the specific response tested during initial learning but rather extend to the transfer of knowledge in a variety of contexts.
Long-term effects of testing on the recall of nontested materials
The results indicate that the magnitude of retrieval-induced facilitation increases with delay at the beginning but asymptotes afterward, similar to the memorial benefit of testing on the tested material.
The Influence of Corrective Feedback on Retrieval-induced Forgetting
Prior research has shown that testing can impair subsequent recall of nontested materials: an effect termed retrieval-induced forgetting. In the current study, I examined the effect of providing


Test-Enhanced Learning
Investigation of the testing effect with educationally relevant materials and whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material concluded that testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.
Testing versus review: Effects on retention.
Taking a test on content that has just been studied is known to enhance later retention of the material studied, but is testing more profitable than the same amount of time spent in review? High
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
New evidence on the suggestibility of memory: the role of retrieval-induced forgetting in misinformation effects.
The authors found that the inhibition of critical items rendered the recollection of postevent information more likely in a subsequent test of memory and established that when guided retrieval practice and final recall tests were separated by 24 hr, retrieval-induced forgetting failed to emerge and misinformation effects were absent.
Some effects of remembering on forgetting
It was concluded that the critical aspects of a test are the retrieval operations themselves, and suggestions are made as to how these operations attenuate forgetting.
The influence of retrieval on retention
The results reject the hypothesis that a successful retrieval is beneficial only to the extent that it provides another study experience, as performing a memory retrieval (TTST condition) led to better performance than pure study (pure ST condition).
Retention of Prose Materials as a Function of Postacquisition Testing.
One-week prose retention was examined as a function of four activities immediately following reading. Completion questions as an immediate activity with knowledge of results produced significantly
Retrieval-induced forgetting in implicit memory tests: The role of test awareness
Test awareness seems to mediate retrieval-induced forgetting in implicit memory tasks, and this hypothesis predicts similar effects in implicitMemory tasks.
Retention of prose following testing with different types of tests
Failures to find suppression of episodic memories in the think/no-think paradigm
None of the experiments showed reliable suppression effects with either the same or independent-probe tests, suggesting that suppression is apparently not a robust experimental phenomenon in the think/no-think paradigm.