Retinol forms retinoic acid via retinal.

@article{Kim1992RetinolFR,
  title={Retinol forms retinoic acid via retinal.},
  author={C. I. Kim and Maria Anna Leo and Charles S. Lieber},
  journal={Archives of biochemistry and biophysics},
  year={1992},
  volume={294 2},
  pages={
          388-93
        }
}
  • C. Kim, M. A. Leo, C. Lieber
  • Published 1 May 1992
  • Biology, Computer Science, Medicine
  • Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
Retinoids and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene family.
TLDR
Transgenic mouse studies are presented here which show that the human ADH3 gene can be expressed in several mouse embryonic tissues including the neural tube, suggesting that ethanol-induced neural tube defects seen in cases of fetal alcohol syndrome may be due to ethanol inhibition of retinol oxidation catalyzed by an embryonic ADH.
Xanthine dehydrogenase processes retinol to retinoic acid in human mammary epithelial cells
TLDR
The demonstration of a novel retinol oxidation pathway that in the HMEC cytoplasm directly conduces to retinoic acid is reported, giving a new insight into the biological role of xanthine dehydrogenase.
Class IV alcohol/retinol dehydrogenase localization in epidermal basal layer: Potential site of retinoic acid synthesis during skin development
TLDR
Examining mouse skin for the expression of genes encoding class I ADH and class IV ADH, the only ADH isozymes in this species able to function as retinol dehydrogenases in vitro provides evidence that the basal layer of the epidermis may be the primary site of local retinoic acid synthesis needed for retinoid signaling in the skin.
Involvement of Alcohol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Inhibition by Ethanol
TLDR
The presently available evidence concerning the role of alcohol dehydrogenase in retinoic acid synthesis, the roles of retinooic acid in neural tube development, and therole of ethanol as an agent that can disrupt both retinoi acid synthesis and Neural tube development is described.
Catalytic efficiency of human alcohol dehydrogenases for retinol oxidation and retinal reduction.
TLDR
The relative efficiency (V/Km) of eight human ADH isoenzymes for oxidation of all-trans-retinol and reduction of three retinal isomers are reported, and alpha alpha has the highest efficiency of all tested isoenZymes for 13-cis-retinal.
Localization of class I and class IV alcohol dehydrogenases in mouse testis and epididymis: potential retinol dehydrogenases for endogenous retinoic acid synthesis.
TLDR
Results support a role for ADHs during spermatogenesis, potentially as retinol dehydrogenases catalyzing local retinoic acid synthesis in the testis and epididymis.
Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon
TLDR
The data demonstrate impairment of hepatic and intestinal cytosolic retinol oxidation and retinoic acid formation by ethanol at concentrations in body tissues after social drinking in humans and suggest that the increased risk of developing colorectal neoplasias after alcohol abuse may be caused by impaired retinoid signal transduction.
Ethanol inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis as a potential mechanism for fetal alcohol syndrome
  • L. Deltour, H. Ang, G. Duester
  • Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1996
TLDR
The observed ethanol‐induced reduction in RA may be caused by ethanol inhibition of retinol oxidation catalyzed by class IV ADH, and this enzyme may well play a crucial role in the postulated mechanism for fetal alcohol syndrome.
Xanthine Oxidase Catalyzes the Synthesis of Retinoic Acid
TLDR
Milk xanthine oxidase (xanthine: oxygen oxidore-ductase; XO; EC 1.1.3.22) was found to catalyze the conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid, with the all trans- and 9-cis-forms being the preferred substrates rather than 13- cis-retinal dehyde.
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References

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Retinoic acid synthesis by cytosol from the alcohol dehydrogenase negative deermouse.
New pathway for retinol metabolism in liver microsomes.
NAD+-dependent retinol dehydrogenase in liver microsomes.
Holocellular retinol binding protein as a substrate for microsomal retinal synthesis.
TLDR
Holocellular retinol binding protein (holo-CRBP) was substrate for retinal synthesis at physiological pH with microsomes prepared from rat liver, kidney, lung, and testes, showing typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and generating adequate retinal to contribute significantly to retinoic acid synthesis.
Retinoic acid metabolism by a system reconstituted with cytochrome P-450.
Metabolism of 13-cis-retinoic acid by a rat liver 9000g supernatant preparation.
TLDR
The in vitro metabolites formed on incubation of 13-cis-retinoic acid with a 9000g rat liver supernatant system and the results from previously reported in vivo metabolism studies suggest that oxidation at C4 is a major metabolic pathway of 12- cis-RA in both rats and humans.
Transport and storage of vitamin A
TLDR
A group of ligand-dependent transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors, that apparently mediate many of the extravisual effects of retinoids are presented.
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