Retinoids and Hox genes

@article{Marshall1996RetinoidsAH,
  title={Retinoids and Hox genes},
  author={Heather Marshall and Alastair Morrison and Mich{\`e}le Studer and Heike Pöpperl and Robb Krumlauf},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={1996},
  volume={10},
  pages={969 - 978}
}
The vertebrate embryonic body plan is constructed through the interaction of many de‐ velopmentally regulated genes that supply cells with the essential positional and functional information they require to migrate to their appropriate destination and generate the proper structures. Some molecular cues involved in patterning the central nervous system, particularly in the hindbrain, are interpreted by the Hox homeobox genes. Retinoids can affect the expression of Hox genes in cell lines and… 

Retinoic acid regulates a subset of Cdx1 function in vivo

Cdx1 may serve as an intermediary in governing a subset of expression of Cdx1 crucial for normal vertebral patterning in mesodermal Hox expression, consistent with a pivotal role for retinoid signalling.

Retinoid signalling is required for information transfer from mesoderm to neuroectoderm during gastrulation.

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Altered retinoic acid sensitivity and temporal expression of Hox genes in polycomb-M33-deficient mice.

It is proposed that a function of the M33 protein is to control the accessibility of retinoic acid response elements in the vicinity of Hox genes regulatory regions by direct or indirect mechanisms or both, which could provide a means for preventing ectopic transactivation early in development and be part of the molecular basis for temporal colinearity of H Cox gene expression.

Retinoic Acid Regulation of Cdx1: an Indirect Mechanism for Retinoids and Vertebral Specification

Evidence that cdx1 is a direct RA target gene is presented, suggesting an additional pathway for retinoid-dependent vertebral specification and a role for Cdx members in direct regulation of expression of at least some Hox genes.

Direct crossregulation between retinoic acid receptor β and Hox genes during hindbrain segmentation

This study identifies a new molecular link, completing a feedback circuit between Rarb, Hoxb4 and Hoxd4, and proposes that the function of this circuit is to align the initially incongruent expression of multiple RA-induced genes at a single segment boundary.

Induction of Hox genes and genome wide identification of Hox binding sites in mice

The goal of this research was to investigate on a genome-wide basis, the rules and principles which underlie the binding of different HOX proteins to target sites and understand the basis for their distinct specificities.
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References

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