Retinoic acid regulation of the VIP and PACAP autocrine ligand and receptor system in human neuroblastoma cell lines.


Neuroendocrine tumors, neuroblastoma in particular, commonly express the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and their receptors. Retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to induce differentiation of neuroblastoma cell lines, possibly by augmenting or interfering with neuropeptide autocrine… (More)