Alteration of the Epha2/ephrin-a Signaling Axis in Psoriatic Epidermis
Nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) are likely to mediate many of the pleiotypic cutaneous actions of retinoids by acting as ligand-dependent enhancer factors. The presence of nuclear RAR in skin was confirmed by identification of a 45-kDa nuclear RA binding activity by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Analysis of RNA extracted from skin specimens demonstrated expression of RAR-alpha and RAR-gamma transcripts, as well as expression of the homologous low-affinity receptor, RXR-alpha. Both isoforms of RAR-gamma RAR-gamma 1 and RAR-gamma 2 were detectable, with RAR-gamma 1 being the more strongly expressed. FPLC analysis also demonstrated a 15-kDa peak of specific RA binding activity, consistent with the presence of cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP). Of the two known forms of CRABP, CRABP-II was much more strongly expressed than CRABP-I at the level of steady-state mRNA. CRABP-II was also expressed in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. CRABP-II was up-regulated by agents that induce keratinocyte differentiation, and inhibited by prolonged exposure to high concentrations of RA. In contrast, CRABP-II was consistently induced by RA in dermal, but not in lung fibroblasts. CRABP-I was expressed at low to undetectable levels under all these conditions. The presence of tissue-specific and differentiation-related regulation of CRABP-II suggests that it may be an important regulator of RA action in human skin.