Additive effects of PI3-kinase and MAPK activities on NB4 cell granulocyte differentiation: potential role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ
Retinoic acid provokes growth inhibition and differentiation of the human leukemic cell line U937 to macrophage-like cells. We report that treatment of U937 cells with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), but not the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, results in an increased gene expression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) species PI3Kgamma. PI3Kgamma expression was transcriptionally elevated, indicating that the PI3Kgamma gene may be a direct target for ATRA. In contrast to its effect on PI3Kgamma expression, ATRA did neither affect the levels of the PI3K species beta and delta nor the adapter proteins p85 and p101. Enhanced expression by ATRA of PI3Kgamma correlated with an increase of PI3K lipid kinase activity. Additionally, ATRA induced significant and lasting stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/Erk2 activity. This effect was sensitive to the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 and, therefore, attributed to the upregulation of PI3Kgamma expression. Our findings suggest that sustained MAPK activation via PI3Kgamma precedes ATRA -dependent differentiation or growth inhibition.