Retinoic acid given at late embryonic stage depresses sonic hedgehog and Hoxd-4 expression in the pharyngeal area and induces skeletal malformation in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) embryos.


During the development of pharyngeal cartilages, signal molecules, including sonic hedgehog (shh) and various growth factors, as well as Hox genes are expressed in the pharyngeal area. To elucidate whether shh and Hoxd-4 function in pharyngeal cartilage formation in teleost jaw and gill primordia, spatial and temporal patterns of shh expression in flounder… (More)


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