Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light

@article{Ham1976RetinalST,
  title={Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light},
  author={William T. Ham and Harold A. Mueller and David H Sliney},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1976},
  volume={260},
  pages={153-155}
}
A GROWING body of literature attests to the deleterious effects of long term exposure to light1–8. To define more critically the differences between thermal and photochemical effects, we have exposed the retinae of rhesus monkeys to eight monochromatic laser lines from 1,064–441.6 nm. Thermal damage to the retina is to be expected for the 1,064-nm line since the photopigments are not involved and energy absorption takes place predominantly in the melanin granules of the pigment epithelium and… 
Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wave-length light.
TLDR
Results indicate a nonthermal type of photochemical lesion originating in the retinal pigment epithelium and leading to a histological response with hypopigmentation which requires 48 hr to appear.
Retinal damage secondary to chronic light exposure
TLDR
There appears to be more than one mechanism for retinal damage in chronic light exposure, and at least one mechanism is not dependent solely upon the visual pigment and the pigment epithelium.
SENSITIVITY OF THE RETINA TO RADIATION DAMAGE AS A FUNCTION OF WAVELENGTH *
TLDR
The photopathology of thc photochemical lesion has been studied at postexposure times ranging from 1 h to 90 days and will be demonstrated in a number of histological slides and correlates well with monocular visual acuity tests in the rhesus monkey as defined by the Landolt ring technique.
The Action Spectrum of Photochemical Damage to the Retina: A Review of Monochromatic Threshold Data
TLDR
It is concluded that the critical parameters for the generation of either action spectrum remain elusive and experiments are suggested to resolve this issue and fill a few gaps in knowledge.
Retinal damage from long-term exposure to laser radiation.
TLDR
The maculae of rhesus monkeys were exposed to an argon-ion lazer operated in the TEM00 continuous wave mode at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and damage mechanisms may involve photochemical processes initiated by the interaction of visible light with the retinal photopigments.
Structural and Functional Change in Albino Rat Retina Induced by Various Visible Light Wavelengths
TLDR
The results indicate that the retinal damage induced by visible light observed in albino rats depends on the wavelength and energy level of the exposed light.
Damage to the monkey retina by broad-spectrum fluorescent light.
TLDR
The sensitivity of the adult primate retina to damage by relatively moderate levels of light is demonstrated by rhesus and pigtail monkeys exposed to a uniform field of light from daylight fluorescent lamps.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-8 OF 8 REFERENCES
Retinal damage by visible light. An electron microscopic study.
TLDR
Upon exposure to relatively cold light at a brightness of approximately 750 foot-candles (ft-c), photoreceptic outer segments of the albino rat demonstrate remarkable membranous changes.
Prolonged Color Blindness Induced by Intense Spectral Lights in Rhesus Monkeys
Prolonged exposure of rhesus monkeys to intense blue light produces long-term changes which are consistent with loss of response of those cones that contain a photopigment with peak absorption at 445
Retinal damage after prolonged exposure to visible light. A light and electron microscopic study.
TLDR
Electron and light microscopic studies indicated that the retinas of Albino rats were irreversibly damaged and that the degeneration was specifically localized to the photoreceptor cells.
An equilibrium thermal model for retinal injury from optical sources.
A uniform absorption thermal model is described which allows the calculation of the temperature rise in the retina due to steady state or continuous optical irradiation. Temperature rises of 9-10
Chorioretinal temperature increases from solar observation.
Chorioretinal temperature increases produced by solar observations are computed digitally. The spectral characteristics of solar radiation and the spectral transmittances of the atmosphere,
Ocular hazard from viewing the sun unprotected and through various windows and filters.
An optical source simulating the sun at the top of the atmosphere has been constructed and used to obtain retinal burn thresholds in the rhesus monkey for image diameters corresponding to that of the