Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light

  title={Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light},
  author={Gerald H. Jacobs and Jay Neitz and Jess F. Deegan},
HIGH sensitivity to near-ultraviolet light is a fundamental feature of vision in many invertebrates1,2. Among vertebrates there are some amphibians, birds and fishes that are also sensitive to near-ultraviolet wavelengths3–6. This sensitivity can be achieved through a class of cone photoreceptor containing an ultraviolet-sensitive pigment7–9. Although these receptors were thought not to exist in the eyes of mammals, we now report that some rodents have a retinal mechanism that is maximally… 
Review Vision in the ultraviolet
Sensitivity to ultraviolet light (UV) is achieved by photoreceptors in the eye that contain a class of visual pigments maximally sensitive to light at wavelengths <400 nm, and in many vertebrate species, the UV-sensitive (UVS) pigment is replaced by a violet- sensitive (VS).
Ultraviolet vision in vertebrates
Following a review of the distribution and nature of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates the issue of the utility of this capacity is discussed.
Vision in the ultraviolet
Amino acid sequence analysis of vertebrate VS/UVS pigments indicates that the ancestral pigment was UVS, with loss of UV sensitivity occurring separately in mammals, amphibia and birds, and subsequently regained by a single amino acid substitution in certain bird species.
The spectral transmission of ocular media suggests ultraviolet sensitivity is widespread among mammals
All species whose lenses removed short wavelengths had retinae specialized for high spatial resolution and relatively high cone numbers, suggesting that UV removal is primarily linked to increased acuity.
Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution
It is discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet- sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments, and ultraviolet pigments are common in mammals.
Ultraviolet vision in a bat
It is shown that a phyllostomid flower bat, Glossophaga soricina, is colour-blind but sensitive to ultraviolet light down to a wavelength of 310 nm, indicating that excitation of the β-band of the visual pigment is the most likely cause of ultraviolet sensitivity.
Photoreception and vision in the ultraviolet
ABSTRACT Ultraviolet (UV) light occupies the spectral range of wavelengths slightly shorter than those visible to humans. Because of its shorter wavelength, it is more energetic (and potentially more
Regional variations in the relative sensitivity to UV light in the mouse retina.
About 3% of all mouse photoreceptors are cones. An earlier electrophysiological study indicated that there were two classes of cone in the mouse retina having peak sensitivities (lambda max) of about


The purpose of this review is to integrate what is known about UV vision in invertebrates, which have been particularly well studied, with a growing literature on UV sensitivity and UV effects in the visual systems of humans and other vertebrates.
Ultraviolet visual pigment in a vertebrate: a tetrachromatic cone system in the dace.
Microspectrophotometric measurements of optically isolated photoreceptors in the Japanese dace, a cyprinid fish, revealed four spectroscopically distinguishable cone pigments and one rod pigment. A
Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys.
  • J. Neitz, G. H. Jacobs
  • Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science
  • 1984
The corneal electroretinogram was used to investigate the spectral sensitivities of cones in 12 dichromatic squirrel monkeys whose color-vision capacities were established in behavioral tests, and the spectral-sensitivity functions obtained are similar to previous estimates of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatics squirrel monkeys derived from direct microspectrophotometric measurements.
Blue light hazard in rat
Hummingbirds see near ultraviolet light.
Three species of hummingbird were trained to make visual discriminations between lights of different spectral content and birds of all three species were able to distinguish near ultraviolet from darkness or from the small amount of far red light that leaked through the ultraviolet-transmitting glass filter.
Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.
Psychophysical results on human colour matching were well predicted from the spectral sensitivities of the monkey cones, and the spectra of the red and green cones matched the respective pi 5 and pi 4 mechanisms of Stiles (1953, 1959).
Response properties of cones from the retina of the tiger salamander.
1. Spectral sensitivity measurements using the suction electrode technique reveal three types of cone in the retina of the tiger salamander, showing maximum sensitivity at wavelengths 610 nm