Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light

  title={Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light},
  author={Gerald H. Jacobs and Jay Neitz and Jess F. Deegan},
HIGH sensitivity to near-ultraviolet light is a fundamental feature of vision in many invertebrates1,2. Among vertebrates there are some amphibians, birds and fishes that are also sensitive to near-ultraviolet wavelengths3–6. This sensitivity can be achieved through a class of cone photoreceptor containing an ultraviolet-sensitive pigment7–9. Although these receptors were thought not to exist in the eyes of mammals, we now report that some rodents have a retinal mechanism that is maximally… Expand
Review Vision in the ultraviolet
Sensitivity to ultraviolet light (UV) is achieved by photoreceptors in the eye that contain a class of visual pigments maximally sensitive to light at wavelengths <400 nm, and in many vertebrate species, the UV-sensitive (UVS) pigment is replaced by a violet- sensitive (VS). Expand
Ultraviolet vision in vertebrates
Following a review of the distribution and nature of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates the issue of the utility of this capacity is discussed. Expand
Vision in the ultraviolet
Amino acid sequence analysis of vertebrate VS/UVS pigments indicates that the ancestral pigment was UVS, with loss of UV sensitivity occurring separately in mammals, amphibia and birds, and subsequently regained by a single amino acid substitution in certain bird species. Expand
Regeneration of ultraviolet pigments of vertebrates
The construction and functional assays of the ultraviolet or near‐ultraviolet pigments from a wide range of vertebrate species will allow us to study the molecular bases of ultraviolet vision for the first time. Expand
The spectral transmission of ocular media suggests ultraviolet sensitivity is widespread among mammals
All species whose lenses removed short wavelengths had retinae specialized for high spatial resolution and relatively high cone numbers, suggesting that UV removal is primarily linked to increased acuity. Expand
Ultraviolet Vision in Birds
This chapter discusses a range of behavioral experiments, from several species, which show that UV information is utilized in behavioral decisions, notably in foraging and signaling, and emphasizes that avian and human color perceptions are different and that the use of human color standards, and even artificial lighting, may produce misleading results. Expand
Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution
It is discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet- sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments, and ultraviolet pigments are common in mammals. Expand
Ultraviolet vision in a bat
It is shown that a phyllostomid flower bat, Glossophaga soricina, is colour-blind but sensitive to ultraviolet light down to a wavelength of 310 nm, indicating that excitation of the β-band of the visual pigment is the most likely cause of ultraviolet sensitivity. Expand
Regional variations in the relative sensitivity to UV light in the mouse retina.
About 3% of all mouse photoreceptors are cones. An earlier electrophysiological study indicated that there were two classes of cone in the mouse retina having peak sensitivities (lambda max) of aboutExpand
Photoreception and vision in the ultraviolet
ABSTRACT Ultraviolet (UV) light occupies the spectral range of wavelengths slightly shorter than those visible to humans. Because of its shorter wavelength, it is more energetic (and potentially moreExpand


The purpose of this review is to integrate what is known about UV vision in invertebrates, which have been particularly well studied, with a growing literature on UV sensitivity and UV effects in the visual systems of humans and other vertebrates. Expand
Ultraviolet visual pigment in a vertebrate: a tetrachromatic cone system in the dace.
Microspectrophotometric measurements of optically isolated photoreceptors in the Japanese dace, a cyprinid fish, revealed four spectroscopically distinguishable cone pigments and one rod pigment. AExpand
Ultraviolet photosensitivity in goldfish: An independent U.V. retinal mechanism
Heart rate conditioned goldfish were sensitive to u.v. stimuli at wavelengths down to 340 nm and a retinal origin for the u.V. peak showed an orderly change in sensitivity with alteration in adapting u. v. adapting background. Expand
Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys.
  • J. Neitz, G. H. Jacobs
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science
  • 1984
The corneal electroretinogram was used to investigate the spectral sensitivities of cones in 12 dichromatic squirrel monkeys whose color-vision capacities were established in behavioral tests, and the spectral-sensitivity functions obtained are similar to previous estimates of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatics squirrel monkeys derived from direct microspectrophotometric measurements. Expand
Ultraviolet receptors, tetrachromatic colour vision and retinal mosaics in the brown trout (Salmo trutta): Age-dependent changes
Analysis of the visual receptors of "yearling" brown trout revealed three cone types, double cones with visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 600 and 535 nm, and two types of single cone with lambda max at about 440 and 355 nm, which concluded that u.v. sensitivity is derived from the corner cones of the mosaic, and that it is only present in young trout. Expand
Blue light hazard in rat
Rat is the first species for which two different action spectra of photochemical damage have been established, and in similar experimental conditions susceptibility to photic injury in rat is comparable to that in primates. Expand
Hummingbirds see near ultraviolet light.
Three species of hummingbird were trained to make visual discriminations between lights of different spectral content and birds of all three species were able to distinguish near ultraviolet from darkness or from the small amount of far red light that leaked through the ultraviolet-transmitting glass filter. Expand
Suppression of pineal melatonin in Peromyscus leucopus by different monochromatic wavelengths of visible and near-ultraviolet light (UV-A)
These experiments are the first to demonstrate light-induced suppression of pineal melatonin in Peromyscus leucopus and reveal a novel finding: the suppression of Pinealmelatonin content by ultraviolet wavelengths as low as 320 and 340 nm. Expand
Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.
Psychophysical results on human colour matching were well predicted from the spectral sensitivities of the monkey cones, and the spectra of the red and green cones matched the respective pi 5 and pi 4 mechanisms of Stiles (1953, 1959). Expand
Response properties of cones from the retina of the tiger salamander.
1. Spectral sensitivity measurements using the suction electrode technique reveal three types of cone in the retina of the tiger salamander, showing maximum sensitivity at wavelengths 610 nmExpand