Retinal anatomy of the New Zealand kiwi: structural traits consistent with their nocturnal behavior.

@article{Corfield2015RetinalAO,
  title={Retinal anatomy of the New Zealand kiwi: structural traits consistent with their nocturnal behavior.},
  author={Jeremy R. Corfield and Stuart Parsons and Yoshitetsu Harimoto and Monica L Acosta},
  journal={Anatomical record},
  year={2015},
  volume={298 4},
  pages={771-9}
}
Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) have a visual system unlike that of other nocturnal birds, and have specializations to their auditory, olfactory, and tactile systems. Eye size, binocular visual fields and visual brain centers in kiwi are proportionally the smallest yet recorded among birds. Given the many unique features of the kiwi visual system, we examined the laminar organization of the kiwi retina to determine if they evolved increased light sensitivity with a shift to a nocturnal niche or if they… CONTINUE READING

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In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
RetinaIs associated anatomic site ofRetinitis Pigmentosa
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
Retinal ConeConstitutional part ofRetina
In particular , the retina appeared to have a high proportion of rod photoreceptors as compared to diurnal species , as evidenced by a thick outer nuclear layer , and also numerous thin photoreceptor segments intercalated among the conical shaped cone photoreceptor inner segments .
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