Rethinking the mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for DSM-V.

  title={Rethinking the mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for DSM-V.},
  author={David Watson},
  journal={Journal of abnormal psychology},
  volume={114 4},
  • D. Watson
  • Published 1 November 2005
  • Psychology
  • Journal of abnormal psychology
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) groups disorders into diagnostic classes on the basis of the subjective criterion of "shared phenomenological features." There are now sufficient data to eliminate this rational system and replace it with an empirically based structure that reflects the actual similarities among disorders. The existing structural evidence establishes that the mood and anxiety disorders should… 

Hierarchical structures of affect and psychopathology and their implications for the classification of emotional disorders

The existing structural evidence establishes that the mood and anxiety disorders should be collapsed together into an overarching superclass of emotional disorders, which can be decomposed into three subclasses: the distress disorders, the fear disorders, and the bipolar disorders.

Supplementary dimensional assessment in anxiety disorders

It is suggested that a staging approach to illness, based upon supplementary dimensional rating could provide useful information for clinical and research purposes and how an integrated categorical/dimensional strategy might enhance the usefulness of the DSM‐V is discussed.

Looming Vulnerability in Panic Disorder and the Phobias

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) includes all of the anxiety syndromes within a section on anxiety disorders. However, the

Additional evidence for a quantitative hierarchical model of mood and anxiety disorders for DSM-V: the context of personality structure.

The authors investigate how the diagnoses of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder compare with the other internalizing categories at successive levels of the personality hierarchy and highlight the important contribution of a 5-factor model of personality in conceptualizing internalizing pathology.

Hierarchical Structure of Emotional Disorders: From Individual Symptoms to the Spectrum

Results highlight a bottom-up approach to constructing an empirical nosology that does not rely on analysis of diagnostic categories and propose a novel comprehensive description of the lower order structure of emotional disorders.

Classification of Anxiety and Depressive disorders: problems and solutions

There is now sufficient evidence to consider replacing the present groupings of disorders with an empirically based structure that reflects the actual similarities among disorders, and a reduced criterion set that can be remembered by clinicians and an enhanced criterion set for use with decision support tools.

Understanding the Latent Structure of the Emotional Disorders in Children and Adolescents

The prevailing view that the co-occurrence of anxiety and mood disorders in children is in part due to a common vulnerability is supported, as depression and generalized anxiety loaded more highly onto the higher-order factor than the other disorders.

Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

Clinical results underscore the potential utility of conceptualizing patient treatment needs using an approach targeting psychopathological systems underlying meta-structural classification rubrics, and document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes.



Structural relationships among dimensions of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and dimensions of negative affect, positive affect, and autonomic arousal.

Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders, several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined.

Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample.

A high rate of lifetime comorbidity was found between the anxiety and mood disorders; the lifetime association with mood disorders was particularly strong for PTSD, GAD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia.

Structure of anxiety and the anxiety disorders: a hierarchical model.

The authors used a semistructured clinical interview and a self-report battery of questionnaires to measure key features of the anxiety disorders in a large sample of patients seeking treatment at an

Posttraumatic stress disorder and the structure of common mental disorders

Factor analytic findings revealed that PTSD showed no affinity with the fear factor defined by panic and phobic disorders, and instead loaded on the anxious‐misery factor defined primarily by mood disorders.

Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

  • R. Pinder
  • Psychology
    Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment
  • 2007
Efficacy in anxiety disorders is not confined to SSRIs, however, and most antidepressants, particularly but not exclusively those with a serotonergic arm to their pharmacology, are in fact anxiolytic – in the previous issue of the journal, the efficacy of the SNRI venlafaxine in panic disorder was reviewed.

Comorbidity among anxiety disorders: implications for treatment and DSM-IV.

Treatment implications are presented with preliminary data on the effects of psychosocial treatment of panic disorder on co-morbid generalized anxiety disorder and implications of comorbidity for research on the nature of psychopathology and the ultimate integration of dimensional and categorical features in the nosology are considered.

Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders.

Findings in normal samples suggest that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Aflect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) may improve their differentiation, and the results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.

The DSM-IV field trial for mixed anxiety-depression.

A mixed anxiety-depression category be included in the DSM-IV appendix for proposed diagnostic categories that need further study and a criteria set is proposed.

Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders.

Research on relationships between anxiety and depression has proceeded at a rapid pace since the 1980s, with data converging on an integrative hierarchical model of mood and anxiety disorders in which each individual syndrome contains both a common and a unique component.

The structure of common mental disorders.

  • R. Krueger
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1999
The results suggest that comorbidity results from common, underlying core psychopathological processes, and argue for focusing research on these core processes themselves, rather than on their varied manifestations as separate disorders.