Rethinking Rumination

  title={Rethinking Rumination},
  author={Susan Nolen-Hoeksema and Blair E. Wisco and Sonja Lyubomirsky},
  journal={Perspectives on Psychological Science},
  pages={400 - 424}
The response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) was proposed to explain the insidious relationship between rumination and depression. We review the aspects of the response styles theory that have been well-supported, including evidence that rumination exacerbates depression, enhances negative thinking, impairs problem solving, interferes with instrumental behavior, and erodes social support. Next, we address contradictory and new findings. Specifically, rumination appears to more consistently… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Cognitive Control and Rumination in Youth: The Importance of Emotion

This study examined whether ruminating youth would show similar cognitive control difficulties to adults and suggested both similarities and differences compared to adult studies and are discussed in terms of clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of psychopathology.

Influence of Rumination and Distraction on the Therapeutic Process in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression

The response styles theory by Nolen-Hoeksema (J Abnorm Psychol 100:569–582, 1991) suggests that rumination in response to depressed mood exacerbates and prolongs depression, while distraction

Positive rumination can (also) interfere with sleep: A study in a non-clinical sample

It is postulated that negative ruminations perpetuate insomnia symptoms by increasing arousal. Less is known about the role of positive rumination. In this study, we set out to test the association

Emotion differentiation moderates the effects of rumination on depression: A longitudinal study.

Elevated trait rumination is associated with and predicts onset of major depressive disorder, but not all people with elevated trait rumination develop major depressive disorder. We hypothesize that

The Interaction of Co-rumination, Coping Strategies, and Stress in Predicting Depression and Anxiety

Co-rumination, defined as a repetitive, problem-focused dialogue with close friends, has been demonstrated to be a cognitive vulnerability factor for both depression and anxiety. This risk factor has

Relations between a ruminative thinking style and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in non-clinical samples

Data indicate that a ruminative response style and obsessive rumination share common processual features and might help to further elucidate the role of cognitive vulnerability factors in OCD and to expand cognitive and metacognitive models of OCD.

Characterizing the Ruminative Process in Young Adolescents

  • L. HiltS. Pollak
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
  • 2013
Results indicate that negative self-referential thought is a common response to the stressor and is predicted by trait rumination scores, and Implications for the measurement of rumination as well as treatment are discussed.

A multimethod assessment to study the relationship between rumination and gender differences.

The findings showed that rumination was higher in females than in males, but in men it appeared to be strongly associated with an overall impaired emotional regulation, and no gender differences in rumination and emotion dysregulation were found when inspecting physiological data.



Ruminative Thoughts and Their Relation to Depression and Anxiety1

Although past research has shown a correlation between ruminative response style and depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991), the basic relationships among amount of ruminative thoughts, depression, and

Rumination and Distraction Among Chronic Depressives in Treatment: A Structural Equation Analysis

Response Styles Theory hypothesizes that rumination about one's symptoms amplifies and prolongs depressed mood, whereas distraction has the opposite effect. Response styles are also hypothesized to

Response styles and negative affect among adolescents

This study examined several tenets of the response styles theory of depression (RST, Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) and its generalizability to adolescent populations. Using a short-term longitudinal design,

Rumination and Worry in Nonclinical Adolescents

Worry and rumination both refer to unproductive, repetitive thought processes. Few studies have addressed the relationship between these two constructs, with most researchers exclusively relating

Appraisals and strategies associated with rumination and worry

Negative Cognitive Styles and Stress-Reactive Rumination Interact to Predict Depression: A Prospective Study

Research on cognitive theories of depression has identified negative cognitive styles and rumination in response to depressed mood as risk factors for depressive episodes. In addition, a general

Effect of neuroticism, response style and information processing on depression severity in a clinically depressed sample

The results of this study support the importance of teaching depressed patients to manage their depressive symptoms by avoiding rumination about their symptoms and engaging in distracting and pleasurable activities.

Differential Effects of Rumination and Dysphoria on the Inhibition of Irrelevant Emotional Material: Evidence from a Negative Priming Task

  • J. Joormann
  • Psychology
    Cognitive Therapy and Research
  • 2006
Rumination has been linked to a heightened vulnerability for the development of depression. However, it still remains unclear which cognitive processes underlie individual differences in rumination.