Rethinking Empire from a Chinese Concept ‘All-under-Heaven’ (Tian-xia, )

  title={Rethinking Empire from a Chinese Concept ‘All-under-Heaven’ (Tian-xia, )},
  author={Tingyang Zhao},
  journal={Social Identities},
  pages={29 - 41}
In this paper the author argues that the Chinese theory of All-under-Heaven is the best philosophy for world governance. All-under-Heaven is a deep world concept with a trinity of meanings: the earth, people's hearts and a world institution. And it introduces a political principle, ‘world-ness’, that arguably transcends the principle of ‘internationality’. The author argues that the theory of All-under-Heaven is a more appropriate ‘world theory’ than ‘international theory’ in dealing with world… 

China’s Pledge to Civilise “All Under Heaven”

With China’s global rise, both its state leadership and key academics have engaged in developing a civilisational discourse for the twenty-first century partly based on ancient cosmological concepts.

Reconceptualising world order: Chinese political thought and its challenge to International Relations theory

Abstract At the outset of the twenty-first century, the world is facing a range of problems, including environmental, economic, and security risks, that increasingly challenge the logic of

Chinese Visions of World Order: Post-hegemonic or a New Hegemony?

Lately, there has been increasing interest among international relations (IR) scholars in Chinese thought, both as an alternative to Eurocentric IR, and because the PRC as an emerging power will soon

Journeys beyond the West: World Orders and a 7th century Buddhist Monk

  • L. Ling
  • Political Science
    Review of International Studies
  • 2010
Abstract Novice Lee (‘Frank’) seeks world peace and thinks he has found it in the Liberal world order. He informs the Learned One, head of the monastery. Through their discussions, Frank discovers

Tianxia, Empire and the World: Soft Power and China's Foreign Policy Discourse in the 21st Century

China’s recent ‘charm offensive’ is captivating the world stage. Although there has been a thorough cataloguing of China’s soft power assets i n erms of the effectiveness and limitations of the PRC’s

Competing visions of a postmodern world order: the Philadelphian system versus the Tianxia system

  • Taesuh Cha
  • Political Science
    Cambridge Review of International Affairs
  • 2018
Abstract This article analyses competing discourses on a postmodern world order perpetuated by the United States and the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which are themselves built on their own

History, Tradition and the China Dream: socialist modernization in the World of Great Harmony

How will China influence world politics in the twenty-first century? Many people answer this question by looking to Chinese history, and particularly to traditional models of Chinese world order.

Chinese Philosophy and Universal Values in Contemporary China

© 2020, Ljubljana University Press. Consistent with its growing economic, political and military might, China wants due recognition by and engagement with the global community of nations. This

Whither Chinese IR? The Sinocentric subject and the paradox of Tianxia-ism

Abstract This essay critically assesses the Tianxia Theories, a line of indigenous International Relations (IR) theorizing in China organized around the concept of Tianxia (‘all-under-heaven’). My



Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era

Preface. Introduction. 1. A Cosmopolitan Culture?. 2. The Modernist Fallacy. 3. An Ethno--National Revival?. 4. The Crisis of the National State. 5. Supra-- or Super--Nationalism?. 6. In Defence of

The Nation-State and Violence

Introduction. 1. State, Society and Modern History. 2. The Traditional State: Domination and Military Power. 3. The Traditional State: Bureaucracy, Class, Ideology. 4. The Absolutist State and the

A Global Ethic: The Declaration of the Parliament of the World's Religions

"Presents the text of the 'Declaration' and a commentary on its evolution and significance.... The message of this book is very timely." -The Leading Edge>

Shang-yang (c. 300BC). The Book of Shang-yang

    Liang Shuming thought that ancient China had been developing itself as a 'world' rather than a 'country'. See Collections of Liang Shuming

    • 1992

    Interpretations of rites (c. 500BC), chapter on Da-zhuan

      Confucius (c. 500BC)

      • Early Greek philosophy
      • 1930

      Shima Qian (91BC). The history