Retention of hindlimb stepping ability in adult spinal cats after the cessation of step training.

@article{deLeon1999RetentionOH,
  title={Retention of hindlimb stepping ability in adult spinal cats after the cessation of step training.},
  author={Ray D de Leon and John A Hodgson and Roland R. Roy and V. Reggie Edgerton},
  journal={Journal of neurophysiology},
  year={1999},
  volume={81 1},
  pages={
          85-94
        }
}
Adult spinal cats were trained to perform bipedal hindlimb locomotion on a treadmill for 6-12 wk. After each animal acquired the ability to step, locomotor training was withheld, and stepping was reexamined 6 and 12 wk after training ended. The performance characteristics, hindlimb muscle electromyographic activity patterns, and kinematic characteristics of the step cycle that were acquired with training were largely maintained when training was withheld for 6 wk. However, after 12 wk without… 

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Hindlimb locomotor and postural training modulates glycinergic inhibition in the spinal cord of the adult spinal cat.

Evidence is provided that 1) the neural circuits that generate full-weight-bearing hindlimb stepping are present in the spinal cord of chronic spinal cats that can and cannot step; however, the ability of these circuits to interpret sensory input to drive stepping is mediated at least in part by glycinergic inhibition; and 2) these spinal circuits adapt to the specific motor task imposed, and that these adaptations may include modifications in the Glycinergic pathways that provide inhibition.

Treadmill training enhances the recovery of normal stepping patterns in spinal cord contused rats

Locomotor ability in spinal rats is dependent on the amount of activity imposed on the hindlimbs during treadmill training.

The findings indicate that the ability of the lumbar spinal cord to adjust to load- and speed-related sensory stimuli associated with stepping is dependent on the number of repetitions of the same activity that is imposed on the spinal circuits during treadmill training.

Control of fore- and hindlimb movements and their coordination during quadrupedal locomotion across speeds in adult spinal cats.

The results indicate that biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system play an important role in quadrupedal locomotion and offset some of the loss in neural communication between networks controlling the fore- and hindlimbs following spinal transection.

The recovery of standing and locomotion after spinal cord injury does not require task-specific training

It is concluded that standing and locomotor recovery is due to the return of neuronal excitability within spinal sensorimotor circuits that do not require task-specific activity-dependent plasticity.

Treadmill step training promotes spinal cord neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury

T treadmill training significantly improves functional re-covery and neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury in rats with moderate spinal cord contusion.

Reduced functional recovery by delaying motor training after spinal cord injury.

It is concluded that training of a skilled motor task that relies on descending control is more beneficial when initiated immediately after a partial spinal cord injury.

Spinal Cats on the Treadmill: Changes in Load Pathways

Overall, training appears to decrease monosynaptic excitation and enhance the effects of clonidine in the reduction of disynaptic inhibition and reversal to polysynapticexcitation.

Changes in corticospinal efficacy contribute to the locomotor plasticity observed after unilateral cutaneous denervation of the hindpaw in the cat.

It is suggested that the denervation produces changes in both cortical and spinal excitability that, together, produce a change in corticospinal efficacy that contributes to the recovery of locomotor function.
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    Behavioral and neural biology
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