A clinical study of the extent and nature of skin disease was undertaken among 10,224 Melanesians in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. It was performed concurrently with a survey and selective mass treatment campaign for yaws which has reappeared in the area for the first time in 20 years. For children under 15 years old, prevalence rates for pyoderma and infectious yaws were 52% and 8.5%, respectively. Tinea versicolor was the commonest superficial dermatomycosis affecting nearly half of all adults seen. Glabrous skin (16% of all cases) and nails (25% of all cases) were the principle sites infected by the dermatophytes. Tinea imbricata, whilst uncommon, was restricted to small endemic foci. Pediculosis capitis was universal but scabies was present in only 4% of young children. Unfavourable environmental conditions and misconceptions about personal hygiene are important aetiological determinants. Education and motivation at a village level will be the mainstay of future control with specific therapy generally reserved for treponematoses, extensive dermatophytoses and scabies.