AIM To evaluate the association between mode of birth and the resumption of sexual intercourse, self-reported decline in sexual intercourse and dyspareunia in women at the 6th week and 6th month postpartum. BACKGROUND Interest in the relationship between mode of birth and postpartum sexual functioning is increasing. However, previous findings are contradictory. DESIGN Prospective, longitudinal, observational study. METHOD The participants comprised 552 healthy primiparous women aged 18-45 years who gave birth at a hospital between February 2013 - April 2014. Interviews were performed at the hospital and via telephone at the 6th week and 6th month postpartum. We constructed multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between mode of birth and resumption of intercourse, self-reported decline in sexual intercourse and dyspareunia at the 6th week and 6th month postpartum. RESULTS At the 6th week postpartum, forceps-assisted birth, combination of episiotomy plus perineal tear and belonging to a higher socio-economic status were related to a higher risk of non-resumption of sexual intercourse, while breastfeeding was related to a higher probability of dyspareunia. At the 6th month postpartum, the likelihood of self-reported decline in sexual intercourse was higher among women who screened positive for postpartum depression and a higher number of breastfeeding women reported a decline in sexual intercourse and dyspareunia. Furthermore, at the 6th month postpartum, women who reported the use of emergency services for a health problem had a higher risk of not having resumed intercourse and of experiencing dyspareunia.