Results of the Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment

  title={Results of the Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment},
  author={Boris Ragent and David S. Colburn and P. Avrin and Kathy A. Rages},
  pages={854 - 856}
The nephelometer experiment carried on the Galileo probe was designed to measure the jovian cloud structure and its microphysical characteristics from entry down to atmospheric pressure levels greater than 10 bars. Before this mission there was no direct evidence for the existence of the clouds below the uppermost cloud layer, and only theoretical models derived from remote sensing observations were available for describing such clouds. Only one significant cloud structure with a base at about… 
The clouds of Jupiter: Results of the Galileo Jupiter Mission Probe Nephelometer Experiment
The results of the nephelometer experiment conducted aboard the probe of the Galileo mission to Jupiter are presented. The tenuous clouds and sparse particulate matter in the relatively particle-free
Galileo Probe: In Situ Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere
The Galileo probe performed the first in situ measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter on 7 December 1995. The probe returned data until it reached a depth corresponding to an atmospheric pressure
Galileo Infrared Observations of Jupiter
Galileo infrared observations of Jupiter have been performed with two instruments, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) and the Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR). A first data set was
A theoretical study of parcel stability and cloud distribution in a Jovian hot spot
Abstract The Galileo probe penetrated Jupiter’s atmosphere at a hot spot, a region of unusual clarity and dryness centered at 7°N. The measured abundances of condensable species were puzzling since
Jupiter's Cloud Structure from Galileo Imaging Data☆
The vertical structure of aerosols on Jupiter is inferred from data obtained by the NASA Galileo Solid State Imaging system during the first six orbits of the spacecraft. Images at 889 nm (a strong
Radio Frequency Signals in Jupiter's Atmosphere
During the Galileo probe's descent through Jupiter's atmosphere, under the ionosphere, the lightning and radio emission detector measured radio frequency signals at levels significantly above the
Model interpretation of Jovian lightning activity and the Galileo Probe results
An axisymmetric numerical cloud model with detailed microphysics is used to evaluate the development of water clouds under various Jovian conditions. A formulation of the noninductive ice-ice charge
Galileo probe measurements of thermal and solar radiation fluxes in the Jovian atmosphere
The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components.
Interpretation of Galileo Probe Data and Implications for Jupiter's Dry Downdrafts
The Galileo probe found the jovian abundance of H_2S to be 30% solar at the 8 bar level, while the abundance of water was less than 3% solar at 12 bars. From 8 to 20 bars, H_2S increased to three
Cloud structure and atmospheric composition of Jupiter retrieved from Galileo near‐infrared mapping spectrometer real‐time spectra
The first four complete spectra recorded by the near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) instrument on the Galileo spacecraft in 1996 have been analyzed. These spectra remain the only ones which


Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment
The objective of the Nephelometer Experient aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission is to explore the vertical structure and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of
Structure of the Atmosphere of Jupiter: Galileo Probe Measurements
Temperatures and pressures measured by the Galileo probe during parachute descent into Jupiter's atmosphere essentially followed the dry adiabat between 0.41 and 24 bars, consistent with the absence
Earth-Based Observations of the Galileo Probe Entry Site
Earth-based observations of Jupiter indicate that the Galileo probe probably entered Jupiter's atmosphere just inside a region that has less cloud cover and drier conditions than more than 99 percent
The structure and microphysical properties of the Venus clouds: Venera 9, 10, and 11 data
Data processing and interpretation of the nephelometer measurements made in the Venus atmosphere aboard the Venera 9, 10 and 11 landers in the sunlit hemisphere near the equator are discussed. These
Solar and Thermal Radiation in Jupiter's Atmosphere: Initial Results of the Galileo Probe Net Flux Radiometer
The Galileo probe net flux radiometer measured radiation within Jupiter's atmosphere over the 125-kilometer altitude range between pressures of 0.44 bar and 14 bars to suggest an increasing water abundance with depth or a deep cloud layer.
Tropospheric gas composition and cloud structure of the Jovian North Equatorial Belt
High spatial resolution Voyager infrared interferometer spectrometer spectra of the North Equatorial Belt (NEB) reveal longitudinal variability of 5-μm brightness temperatures of order 100°C. These
The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere
The measured ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) indicates that this ratio is greater in solar-system hydrogen than in local interstellar hydrogen, and the 3He/4He ratio provides a new value for protosolar (solar nebula) helium isotopes.
Voyager 1 imaging and IRIS observations of Jovian methane absorption and thermal emission - Implications for cloud structure
Abstract Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide-angle camera were used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190-A band methane/continuum ratio for
All atmospheric pressure, temperature, and altitude information were obtained from this reference
  • Science
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