Restructuring of the ‘Macaronesia’ biogeographic unit: A marine multi-taxon biogeographical approach

  title={Restructuring of the ‘Macaronesia’ biogeographic unit: A marine multi-taxon biogeographical approach},
  author={Rui Freitas and Maria Manuel Romeiras and Lu{\'i}s Silva and Ricardo Cordeiro and Patr{\'i}cia Madeira and Jos{\'e} Antonio Gonz{\'a}lez and Peter Wirtz and Jes{\'u}s M. Falc{\'o}n and Alberto Ortiz Brito and Sergio Ricardo Floeter and Pedro Afonso and Filipe Mora Porteiro and Mar{\'i}a Ascensi{\'o}n Viera-Rodr{\'i}guez and Ana Isabel Neto and Ricardo Haroun and Jo{\~a}o N. M. Farminh{\~a}o and Ana Cristina Rebelo and Lara Baptista and Carlos S. Melo and Alejandro Mart{\'i}nez and Jorge N{\'u}{\~n}ez and Bj{\"o}rn Berning and Markes E. Johnson and S{\'e}rgio P. {\'A}vila},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
The Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary Islands and Cabo Verde are commonly united under the term “Macaronesia”. This study investigates the coherency and validity of Macaronesia as a biogeographic unit using six marine groups with very different dispersal abilities: coastal fishes, echinoderms, gastropod molluscs, brachyuran decapod crustaceans, polychaete annelids, and macroalgae. We found no support for the current concept of Macaronesia as a coherent marine biogeographic unit. All marine… 

Biogeography of the coastal fishes of the Socotra Archipelago: Challenging current ecoregional concepts

The Socotra Archipelago, located in the eastern Gulf of Aden, has a unique marine environment, which combines tropical and ‘pseudo-temperate’ elements. An updated species inventory recently

Pelagic Cnidaria and Ctenophora diversity patterns and trends in Macaronesia insular systems (NE Atlantic)

Jellyfish are important components of the marine ecosystem and present a potential resource for different economic domains (e.g. medicine, food and biotechnology). We present an overview of the

The fish family Muraenidae: an ideal group for testing at small-scale the coherency of Macaronesia as a biogeographic unit, with the first report on separate fishery statistics

The present study was conceptualized to study the muraenid species (moray eels) occurring around the volcanic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cabo Verde islands

The Status of Marine Megafauna Research in Macaronesia: A Systematic Review

Marine megafauna serve valuable ecological and economical roles globally, yet, many species have experienced precipitous population declines. The significance of marine megafauna is particularly

Diversity, Distribution and Phylogenetic Relationships of Deep-Sea Lithistids (Porifera, Heteroscleromorpha) of the Azores Archipelago

The diversity and distribution of lithistid sponges of the Azores archipelago are investigated based on historical records and examination of samples accidentally collected during deep-sea longline fishing operations in the region, and molecular barcodes are provided for seven species.

Pliocene and late Pleistocene (MIS 5e) decapod crustaceans from Santa Maria Island (Azores Archipelago: Central Atlantic): systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

The presence of decapod crustaceans in the Pliocene and Pleistocene (MIS 5e) fossil record of Santa Maria Island (Azores Archipelago) is herein reviewed. Our study raises the number of fossil

Taxonomic status of Macaronesian Eucyclops agiloides azorensis (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Copepoda) revisited – morphology suggests a Palearctic origin

Macaronesia, with the exception of the Azores, is one of the few Palearctic provinces where basic taxonomic information on the freshwater copepods is still lacking. We redescribed Eucyclops

Macaronesia as a Fruitful Arena for Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology

Research in Macaronesia has led to substantial advances in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. We review the scientific developments achieved in this region, and outline promising research

Molecular evidence for extensive discontinuity between peracarid (Crustacea) fauna of Macaronesian islands and nearby continental coasts: over fifty candidate endemic species

An unanticipated and strong biogeographic discontinuity of peracaridean fauna between Webbnesia and the Iberian Peninsula is revealed, a pattern that may occur in other groups of marine invertebrates in the region.

Molecular evidence for extensive discontinuity between peracarid (Crustacea) fauna of Macaronesian islands and nearby continental coasts: over fifty candidate endemic species

An unanticipated and strong biogeographic discontinuity of peracaridean fauna between Webbnesia and the Iberian Peninsula is revealed, a pattern that may occur in other groups of marine invertebrates in the region.



A reconstruction of Palaeo‐Macaronesia, with particular reference to the long‐term biogeography of the Atlantic island laurel forests

Macaronesia is a biogeographical region comprising five Atlantic Oceanic archipelagos: the Azores, Madeira, Selvagen (Savage Islands), Canaries and Cape Verde. It has strong affinities with the

Does Macaronesia exist? Conflicting signal in the bryophyte and pteridophyte floras.

Dynamic interchange of taxa with neighboring continental areas rather than relictualism best explains the relationships of the Cape Verde cryptogamic flora and the Canary Island moss flora.

How did they get here? The biogeography of the marine molluscs of the Azores

The geographical location of the Azores, midway between Europe and America, poses problems relative to their colonization and the biogeographic affinity of the biota presently living there. In the

Checklists of Crustacea Decapoda from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with an assessment of Macaronesian and Cape Verde biogeographic marine ecoregions.

The consistency of both ecoregions is compared and validated by assembling their decapod crustacean checklists, analysing their taxa composition, gathering their bathymetric data, and comparing their biogeographic patterns.

Phylogeography of the Red Algal Laurencia Complex in the Macaronesia Region and Nearby Coastal Areas: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

This review consolidates the existing knowledge about the Laurencia complex within the Macaronesian archipelagos and nearby areas and includes Morphological descriptions and phylogeographic remarks of the 16 currently accepted species—whose records were molecular or morphologically confirmed—are included together with an identification key for the Macanonesian Region.


The geographical position and topography of seamounts, the prevailing sets of sea-surface and depth currents, the distance to the nearest colonizing source, available area for the settlement of the larvae, mean and annual range of water temperature, larval ecology, and also anthropogenic factors are discussed, in order to provide an explanation of the biogeographical relationships of the Ormonde Seamount.

Patterns of cladogenesis in the venomous marine gastropod genus Conus from the Cape Verde islands.

The results suggest that the main factor responsible for species diversity in the archipelago may be allopatric speciation promoted by the reduced dispersal capacity of nonplanktonic lecithotrophic larvae.

Phytogeography of Lusitanian Macaronesia: biogeographic affinities in species richness and assemblage composition

Proximity to nearby continental shores, in conjunction with large- and meso-scale oceanographic patterns, seems to interact to create patterns in richness and composition of algal assemblages across Lusitanian Macaronesia.