Therapeutic effect of Kalpaamruthaa, a herbal preparation on adjuvant induced arthritis in wistar rats
BACKGROUND Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prevalent and debilitating disease that affects the joints. Infiltration of blood-derived cells in the affected joints upon activation generate reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, resulting in an oxidative stress. One approach to counteract this oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants as therapeutic agents. OBJECTIVES Kalpaamruthaa (KA), a modified indigenous Siddha preparation constituting Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA), Emblica officinalis (EO) and honey was evaluated for its synergistic antioxidant potential in adjuvant induced arthritic rats than sole SA treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Levels/activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxide and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were determined in control, arthritis induced, SA and KA treated (150 mg/kg b.wt.) animals. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The levels/activities of ROS/RNS, myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxide were increased significantly (p<0.05) and the activities of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were in turn decreased in arthritic rats, whereas these changes were reverted to near normal levels upon SA and KA treatment. KA showed an enhanced antioxidant potential than sole treatment of SA in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. KA via enhancing the antioxidant status in adjuvant induced arthritic rats than sole SA treatment proves to be an important therapeutic modality in the management of RA and thereby instituting the role of oxidative stress in the clinical manifestation of the disease RA. The profound antioxidant efficacy of KA than SA alone might be due to the synergistic action of the polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins and other compounds such as vitamin C and hydroxycinnamates present in KA.