Restoration of oiled African penguins Spheniscus demersus a decade after the Apollo Sea spill

@article{Wolfaardt2008RestorationOO,
  title={Restoration of oiled African penguins Spheniscus demersus a decade after the Apollo Sea spill},
  author={A. C. Wolfaardt and Les G. Underhill and Res Altwegg and Johan Visagie},
  journal={African Journal of Marine Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={30},
  pages={421 - 436}
}
The bulk ore carrier Apollo Sea sank south-west of Dassen Island off western South Africa in June 1994, oiling approximately 10 000 African penguins Spheniscus demersus, most of which were collected from Dassen Island. A total of 4 076 de-oiled penguins was released with flipper bands. From 1994 to 2005, follow-up research using re-sighting and capture-mark-recapture methods indicated that about 73% of the de-oiled penguins observed back at Dassen Island attempted to breed, and were thus… 
Impact of the Treasure oil spill on African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island: case study of a rescue operation
The bulk ore carrier MV Treasure sank between Robben and Dassen islands off western South Africa in June 2000. Although releasing less oil than the Apollo Sea spill six years earlier, the number of
Breeding and moult phenology of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island
TLDR
Moult phenology of African penguins at Dassen Island was more synchronous and seasonal than breeding activities, suggesting that moult, and not breeding, may represent the key driver of the annual cycle.
Processes influencing the population dynamics and conservation of African penguins on Dyer Island, South Africa
TLDR
It seems that once the colony size is <3 500 breeding pairs, the importance of fishing pressure diminishes, suggesting that once a colony has been reduced to a relatively small size, its growth is limited by pressures other than fishing.
Comparison of moult phenology of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Robben and Dassen islands
TLDR
Moult counts provide a relatively reliable method of estimating the size of the adult population at Robben Island, but not at Dassen Island where the large number of birds moulting away from the shoreline results in the population size being significantly underestimated.
From incubation to release: Hand-rearing as a tool for the conservation of the endangered African penguin
TLDR
Rescuing and hand-rearing eggs and chicks has been a successful strategy for African penguins, and might be also applicable for the conservation of other threatened seabird species whose population are critically low or during natural or anthropogenic events that could have disastrous population impacts.
Age‐specific survival and movement among major African Penguin Spheniscus demersus colonies
TLDR
It is suggested that a prolonged period of adult mortality contributed to the observed decline in the African Penguin population and suggest a need for approaches operating over large spatial scales to ensure food security for marine top pre-dators.
Captive husbandry and veterinary care of northern New Zealand dotterels (Charadrius obscurus aquilonius) during the CV Rena oil-spill response
TLDR
The captive management of Northern New Zealand dotterels as a pre-emptive strategy to minimise the effects of oil spills carries significant costs and risks to the birds, and should be considered in the emergency management of high-priority species.
Winners and losers – responses to recent environmental change by South African seabirds that compete with purse-seine fisheries for food
TLDR
The success of the gannet and the tern in the face of recent change is attributable to a rapid increase in South Africa's eastern colony of gannets, aided by high survival of adult birds and perhaps by immigration of first-time breeders from decreasing western colonies, and a probable high production of Swift Terns.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 126 REFERENCES
Mortality and survival of African Penguins Spheniscus demersusinvolved in the Apollo Seaoil spill: an evaluation of rehabilitation efforts
The bulk ore carrier Apollo Seasank near Dassen Island, South Africa, on 20 June 1994 during a period of winter storms. Approximately 10 000 African (Jackass) Penguins Spheniscus demersuswere oiled,
Impact of the Treasure oil spill on African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island: case study of a rescue operation
The bulk ore carrier MV Treasure sank between Robben and Dassen islands off western South Africa in June 2000. Although releasing less oil than the Apollo Sea spill six years earlier, the number of
Breeding success of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island, especially after oiling following the Apollo Sea spill
TLDR
The results suggest that one of the main reasons for lower breeding success in de-oiled birds was their reduced ability to provision chicks, especially during the period in which the energy demands of the chicks is greatest.
THE CONTRIBUTION MADE BY CLEANING OILED AFRICAN PENGUINS SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS TO POPULATION DYNAMICS AND CONSERVATION OF THE SPECIES
TLDR
Over a period of 10 years, time elapsed between banding and recovery did not differ significantly between cleaned and non-oiled penguins, as shown by a randomisation test.
Patterns and impacts of oiling of African penguins Spheniscus demersus: 1981–1991
Initial impact of the Treasure oil spill on seabirds off western South Africa
TLDR
There was low success in catching oiled cormorants and in saving those that were caught, and considerable disruption of pair bonds is expected to result from mortality, different periods in captivity and disruption of moult cycles, resulting in decreased breeding success.
POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE AFRICAN PENGUIN SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS AT ROBBEN ISLAND, SOUTH AFRICA
TLDR
Both fledging success and immigration of immature birds to the colony were significantly related to the spawner biomass of Cape Anchovy Engraulis capensis, the most important prey item of penguins at the island.
Results of the 2001 census of African penguins Spheniscus demersus in South Africa: first measures of the impact of the Treasure oil spill on the breeding population
The Treasure, a bulk ore carrier, sank between Dassen and Robben islands on 23 June 2000. Subsequently, more than 19 000 African penguins Spheniscus demersus were oiled. A further 19 500 unoiled
Conservation of the jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus (L.))
...
...