Restless legs syndrome: a comprehensive overview on its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment

  title={Restless legs syndrome: a comprehensive overview on its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment},
  author={Paul Yeh and Arthur S. Walters and John W. Tsuang},
  journal={Sleep and Breathing},
PurposesRestless legs syndrome (RLS) is underdiagnosed and poorly understood by clinicians and the general public alike; accordingly, a broad literature review with information most relevant to general practice is needed to help dispel misconceptions and improve level of care.MethodsSpecifically, this review comprehensively provides an epidemiological analysis of RLS and examines the risk factors and treatment options for RLS by compiling the findings of past RLS studies. These RLS studies were… 
Is Restless Legs Syndrome Associated with an Increased Risk of Mortality? A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies
The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RLS seems to be a risk factor of mortality, although this association is conditioned by the diagnostic criteria used in the studies, which is not statistically significant.
Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a review.
Prevalence and risk factors for restless legs syndrome during pregnancy in a Northern Italian population
The high frequency of RLS in pregnant women and the risk of the condition was increased in women aged ≥35 years and in the women reporting sleep-wake disturbances during pregnancy, adding data about the frequency and therisk factors for RLS during pregnancy in a Northern Italian population rarely considered.
The Relationship of Restless Legs Syndrome to History of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension.
History of PIH was strongly and positively related to current RLS in this study of primary care patients; these findings further support a possible role for metabolic dysregulation in RLS etiology.
Survival in Restless Legs Syndrome: An 11-Year Surveillance, Community-Based Population Study
Survival in patients with restless legs syndrome seems not to be associated with increased mortality compared to the general population, and studies with prospective data collection with large samples are needed to study the long-term mortality risk factors in RLS cohorts.
Prospective study of restless legs syndrome and risk of erectile dysfunction.
In conclusion, men with RLS had a higher risk of ED, and the magnitude of the risk increased with a higher frequency of RLS symptoms, and combined with other sleep disorders further increased the risk ofED.
Restless legs syndrome: an early clinical feature of Parkinson disease in men.
Severe restless legs syndrome may be an early feature of Parkinson disease, and the first prospective study to examine the risk of developing Parkinson disease in RLS is conducted.


Restless legs syndrome prevalence and impact: REST general population study.
Clinically significant RLS is common (prevalence, 2.7%), is underdiagnosed, and significantly affects sleep and quality of life.
Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in Psychiatric Population
Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome: a synthesis of the literature.
Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome in French adults
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is often underdiagnosed and few subjects receive recommended RLS drug treatment, and the prevalence decreases after the age of 64.
Economic and Human Costs of Restless Legs Syndrome
The research findings on the human and economic costs associated with RLS in populations without any co-morbidities or potentially confounding health conditions indicated that RLS was associated with a substantial economic burden, resulting in high direct and indirect costs to society.
Epidemiology of restless legs symptoms in adults.
The prevalence of restless legs in the general adult population is high and may be associated with decreased well-being, emphasizing the need for further research and greater medical recognition of this condition.
Restless legs syndrome.
The epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management of RLS is outlined, and information that is most relevant to general practice is presented, with an emphasis on practical management.
Prevalence and clinical correlates of restless legs syndrome in an elderly French population: the synapse study.
  • S. CelleF. Roche E. Sforza
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
  • 2010
The presence of undiagnosed RLS is higher in healthy elderly participants without previously diagnosed sleep disorders, affecting women more often than men and predispose to preclinical cognitive decline independently of anxiety, mood disorders, duration and quality of sleep, and medication.
Restless legs syndrome among women: prevalence, co-morbidity and possible relationship to menopause
There was an increased prevalence of RLS among women with vasomotor symptoms during the menopausal transition but not among women using hormone replacement therapy, and no statistical relationship between use of hormone replacement Therapy, postmenopausal state and RLS.