Restless Legs Syndrome: A Review of Clinical and Pathophysiologic Features

  title={Restless Legs Syndrome: A Review of Clinical and Pathophysiologic Features},
  author={Richard P. Allen and Christopher J. Earley},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology},
  • R. Allen, C. Earley
  • Published 1 March 2001
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology
Summary Restlesslegs syndrome (RLS), although long ignored and still much underdiagnosed,disrupts the life and sleep considerably of those who have it. Recent clinicaland basic research provides for better definition and pathophysiologicunderstanding of the disorder. The body of knowledge about this disorder hasbeen expanding rapidly during the past decade and it has altered our conceptsof this disorder. This review of RLS covers history, diagnosis, morbidity ofsleep disturbance, relation to… 
Restless legs syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical aspects
Treatment with opiates and gabapentin is proposed for cases not responding to dopamine agonists and/or when pain is the presenting symptom, and iron therapy is recommended only in patients with low level of ferritin.
Treating restless legs syndrome: current pathophysiological concepts and clinical trials.
  • B. Walther
  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on investigational drugs
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The present review attempts to explain current strategies of treatment for restless legs syndrome in relation to aetiological, genetic and pathophysiological findings.
Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.
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    The Nursing clinics of North America
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Restless Legs Syndrome: A Review
The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of Restless legs syndrome are reviewed.
Restless legs syndrome: diagnosis and review of management options
This review addresses the diagnostic issues, the differential diagnosis, and the evidence base for treatment of the common condition Restless legs syndrome.
[Restless legs syndrome].
Dopaminergic stimulation with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first choice in idiopathic restless legs syndrome, but the long-term adverse effect of augmentation should be carefully monitored.
Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis.
Treatment in uremic RLS should involve the reduction of potential exacerbating agents, correction of anemia (with erythropoietin and iron), and use of levodopa or dopamine agonists.
Restless legs syndrome: A sensorimotor disorder of sleep/ wake motor regulation
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  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current neurology and neuroscience reports
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Therapeutically, studies have shown the dopamine agonists to be the most reliable treatment for severe cases, whereas other recent studies have successfully utilized a number of other medications, including levodopa, opioids, and anticonvulsants.
Emerging drugs for restless legs syndrome
Evidence-based and clinical guidelines identify dopamine agonists as a first-line treatment for daily restless legs symptoms and several promising new therapies with nondopamine profiles are under development for RLS.


Toward a better definition of the restless legs syndrome
Features commonly seen in RLS include sleep disturbance, periodic limb movements in sleep and similar involuntary movements while awake, a normal neurological examination in the idiopathic from, a tendency for the symptoms to be worse in middle to older age, and, in some cases, a family history suggestive of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.
The restless legs syndrome (Ekbom's syndrome).
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  • Medicine
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde
  • 1983
The restless legs syndrome is a condition of unknown aetiology characterized by nocturnal paraesthesiae in the lower limbs, an irreversible tendency to move the limbs, pain in the distribution of the
Restless legs syndrome
There are two major etiologic subgroups of RLS but that the two share central pathophysiologic mechanisms, and it is concluded that Levodopa and dopamine agonists were the most effective treatments.
Restless legs syndrome in 218 patients: associated disorders.
Ropinirole for restless legs syndrome
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  • Medicine
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Encouraging preliminary results justify larger and more controlled trials of ropinirole in patients with RLS and further investigate the mechanisms behind the desire to move the extremities.
A clinical, serological and neurophysiological study of restless legs syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis.
Though the higher frequency of neurophysiological abnormalities in RA patients with RLS was not statistically significant, these data suggest that RLS symptoms in RA may reflect the presence of neurological disorder.
Restless Legs Syndrome Treatment with Dopaminergic Drugs
These dopaminergic drugs decreased the times of waking up and staying awake periods at a statistically significant level (p changed between 0.025 and 0.01, t test) compared with placebo.
Rheumatologic serologies in secondary restless legs syndrome
It is suggested that neuropathy and serum iron deficiency do represent secondary forms of RLS, and serologic investigation unless there are overt clinical signs is not recommended.
Evidence of peripheral axonal neuropathy in primary restless legs syndrome
Extended peripheral nerve investigation in eight consecutive pRLS patients with normal neurological examination results showed that all patients exhibited two or more electrical, psychophysiological, and/or morphological features of peripheral axonal neuropathy.
Epidemiology of restless legs symptoms in adults.
The prevalence of restless legs in the general adult population is high and may be associated with decreased well-being, emphasizing the need for further research and greater medical recognition of this condition.