Responses to methylphenidate in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children: Update 2002

@article{Rapoport2002ResponsesTM,
  title={Responses to methylphenidate in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children: Update 2002},
  author={Judith L. Rapoport and Gale Inoff-Germain},
  journal={Journal of Attention Disorders},
  year={2002},
  volume={6},
  pages={57 - 60}
}
Since the positive effects of stimulants on disruptive behavior were described (Bradley a Bowen, 1941), further pediatric study has been limited almost exclusively to samples of hyperkinetic school-age children. Because these agents normally were viewed as arousing in their effects on the central nervous system, but were calming in their therapeutic effects on these children, stimulant effects on Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were interpreted as being “paradoxical.” Investigation of effects… 

Stimulants: Therapeutic Actions in ADHD

  • A. Arnsten
  • Biology, Psychology
    Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2006
TLDR
Berridge et al have now shown that these low doses of methylphenidate produce marked increases in norepinephrine and dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, whereas having only subtle effects on subcortical catecholamine release.

Influence of methylphenidate on brain development – an update of recent animal experiments

TLDR
The animal data suggest that under these conditions MPH is supportive for brain development and the related behaviour in children with ADHD, and one should be assured that MPH is only given to children with clear ADHD symptomatology leading to psychosocial impairment.

“ Changed behavioral dynamics in ADHD-C , but not in ADHD-PI groups ”

TLDR
The findings that the children with ADHD-combined have more difficulties learning long sequences of behavior than the childrenwith ADHD-PI and psychiatric controls, support the suggestion from DDT that there may by different underlying mechanisms for ADHD-C and ADHD- PI.

The Neurobiological Basis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

TLDR
Effective treatments for ADHD influence catecholamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex and are believed to ameliorate ADHD symptoms via their effects on improved prefrontal cortical regulation of attention and impulse control.

Targeting the Nicotinic Cholinergic System to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Rationale and Progress to Date

TLDR
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were reduced in the majority of published studies of nicotine and novel α4β2 nicotinic agonists in adult ADHD, and targeting nAChRs in ADHD appears to have a modest clinical benefit inAdult ADHD.

Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

TLDR
Low-quality evidence that bupropion decreased the severity of ADHD symptoms and increased the proportion of participants achieving clinical improvement is found, suggesting a possible benefit in clinical improvement in adults with ADHD.

Integrative neuroscience approach to predict ADHD stimulant response

TLDR
There is a need to establish a more robust normative framework as the baseline for treatment, as well as diagnostic decisions, and the growth of integrated neuroscience databases will be important in this regard.

The norepinephrine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder investigated with positron emission tomography.

IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research has long focused on the dopaminergic system's contribution to pathogenesis, although the results have been inconclusive. However, a
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES

Methylphenidate in Hyperactive and Enuretic Children

In 1937, Charles Bradley reported a study of a stimulant, Benzedrine, in a mixed group of children presenting with emotional, behavioral, and academic problems. A number of immediate improvements

Effects of Methylphenidate on Selective and Sustained Attention in Hyperactive, Reading-disabled, and Presumably Attention-disordered Boys

TLDR
It is argued that the cerebral stimulants may be as beneficial for non hyperactive reading-disabled and attention-disordered children as for hyperactive patients, for the former have just as great difficulty sustaining attention as the latter.

Dextroamphetamine. Its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal men.

TLDR
Stimulants appear to act similarly on normal and hyperactive prepubertal boys and adults and adults.

Effects of Methylphenidate in Normal Adults with Reference to Drug Action in Hyperactivity

TLDR
The results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study appear to support the contention that stimulant drug effects in hyperactive children are not paradoxical or atypical.

Dextroamphetamine: cognitive and behavioral effects in normal prepubertal boys.

TLDR
The similarity of the response observed in normal children to that reported in children with "hyperactivity" or minimal brain dysfunction casts doubt on pathophysiological models of minimal brain function which assume that children with this syndrome have a clinically specific or "paradoxical" response to stimulants.

Sleep amphetamine effects in MBDS and normal subjects.

Electroencephalographic sleep patterns in children with minimal brain dysfunction syndrome (MBDS or hyperkinesis) before and during stimulant treatment differed little from those of age-matched

Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance study.

  • C. VaidyaG. Austin J. Gabrieli
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
TLDR
The results suggest that ADHD is characterized by atypical frontal-striatal function and that methylphenidate affects striatal activation differently in ADHD than in healthy children.

Hormonal responses to dextroamphetamine in depressed and normal adolescents.

TLDR
These endocrine responses did not reliably distinguish adolescents with major depressive disorder from those without it, nor did they reliably delineate any specific depressive subgroup, when compared with those from similar studies of adult depression.

Is increased D2 receptor availability associated with response to stimulant medication in ADHD.

TLDR
Results indicate that in non-drug treated children with ADHD, higher D2 receptor availability is observed at baseline which is down-regulated back to reported near-normal values after methylphenidate therapy.

Children with reading disorders--II. Effects of methylphenidate in combination with reading remediation.

TLDR
The results do not support the hypothesis that the enhancement of attention with stimulant treatment facilitates the acquisition of reading skills in children with pure reading disorders.