Responses to methylphenidate in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children: Update 2002

@article{Rapoport2002ResponsesTM,
  title={Responses to methylphenidate in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children: Update 2002},
  author={Judith L. Rapoport and Gale Inoff-Germain},
  journal={Journal of Attention Disorders},
  year={2002},
  volume={6},
  pages={57 - 60}
}
Since the positive effects of stimulants on disruptive behavior were described (Bradley a Bowen, 1941), further pediatric study has been limited almost exclusively to samples of hyperkinetic school-age children. Because these agents normally were viewed as arousing in their effects on the central nervous system, but were calming in their therapeutic effects on these children, stimulant effects on Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were interpreted as being “paradoxical.” Investigation of effects… 
Stimulants: Therapeutic Actions in ADHD
  • A. Arnsten
  • Biology, Psychology
    Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2006
TLDR
Berridge et al have now shown that these low doses of methylphenidate produce marked increases in norepinephrine and dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, whereas having only subtle effects on subcortical catecholamine release.
Influence of methylphenidate on brain development – an update of recent animal experiments
TLDR
The animal data suggest that under these conditions MPH is supportive for brain development and the related behaviour in children with ADHD, and one should be assured that MPH is only given to children with clear ADHD symptomatology leading to psychosocial impairment.
“ Changed behavioral dynamics in ADHD-C , but not in ADHD-PI groups ”
TLDR
The findings that the children with ADHD-combined have more difficulties learning long sequences of behavior than the childrenwith ADHD-PI and psychiatric controls, support the suggestion from DDT that there may by different underlying mechanisms for ADHD-C and ADHD- PI.
Does Stimulant Medication Decrease the Lower Extremity Response Times of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?
TLDR
An alternative hypothesis is presented: that stimulant medications produce an excitatory effect in the central nervous system by increased occupancy of postsynaptic dopamine receptors to reduce the lower extremity response times of children in general.
The Neurobiological Basis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
Effective treatments for ADHD influence catecholamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex and are believed to ameliorate ADHD symptoms via their effects on improved prefrontal cortical regulation of attention and impulse control.
Targeting the Nicotinic Cholinergic System to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Rationale and Progress to Date
TLDR
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were reduced in the majority of published studies of nicotine and novel α4β2 nicotinic agonists in adult ADHD, and targeting nAChRs in ADHD appears to have a modest clinical benefit inAdult ADHD.
Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.
TLDR
Low-quality evidence that bupropion decreased the severity of ADHD symptoms and increased the proportion of participants achieving clinical improvement is found, suggesting a possible benefit in clinical improvement in adults with ADHD.
The norepinephrine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder investigated with positron emission tomography.
IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research has long focused on the dopaminergic system's contribution to pathogenesis, although the results have been inconclusive. However, a
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES
Methylphenidate in Hyperactive and Enuretic Children
In 1937, Charles Bradley reported a study of a stimulant, Benzedrine, in a mixed group of children presenting with emotional, behavioral, and academic problems. A number of immediate improvements
Effects of Methylphenidate on Selective and Sustained Attention in Hyperactive, Reading-disabled, and Presumably Attention-disordered Boys
TLDR
It is argued that the cerebral stimulants may be as beneficial for non hyperactive reading-disabled and attention-disordered children as for hyperactive patients, for the former have just as great difficulty sustaining attention as the latter.
Dextroamphetamine. Its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal men.
TLDR
Stimulants appear to act similarly on normal and hyperactive prepubertal boys and adults and adults.
Effects of Methylphenidate in Normal Adults with Reference to Drug Action in Hyperactivity
TLDR
The results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study appear to support the contention that stimulant drug effects in hyperactive children are not paradoxical or atypical.
Dextroamphetamine: cognitive and behavioral effects in normal prepubertal boys.
TLDR
The similarity of the response observed in normal children to that reported in children with "hyperactivity" or minimal brain dysfunction casts doubt on pathophysiological models of minimal brain function which assume that children with this syndrome have a clinically specific or "paradoxical" response to stimulants.
Sleep amphetamine effects in MBDS and normal subjects.
Electroencephalographic sleep patterns in children with minimal brain dysfunction syndrome (MBDS or hyperkinesis) before and during stimulant treatment differed little from those of age-matched
Children with reading disorders--II. Effects of methylphenidate in combination with reading remediation.
TLDR
The results do not support the hypothesis that the enhancement of attention with stimulant treatment facilitates the acquisition of reading skills in children with pure reading disorders.
Effects of methylphenidate on young adults' performance and event-related potentials in a vigilance and a paired-associates learning test.
TLDR
The results suggest that the stimulant-induced improvement in performance may be mediated by enhancement of evaluation processes, and ERP amplitude displayed a binary association with the achievement of learning.
Clinical, imaging, lesion, and genetic approaches toward a model of cognitive control.
The ability to suppress or override competing attentional and behavioral responses is a key component of cognitive processes. This ability continues to develop throughout childhood and appears to be
Is increased D2 receptor availability associated with response to stimulant medication in ADHD.
TLDR
Results indicate that in non-drug treated children with ADHD, higher D2 receptor availability is observed at baseline which is down-regulated back to reported near-normal values after methylphenidate therapy.
...
...