Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures


Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10071-016-1047-5


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