Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

@article{Hawes2003ResponsesOP,
  title={Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.},
  author={C. Hawes and A. J. Haughton and J. Osborne and D. Roy and S. Clark and J. Perry and P. Rothery and D. Bohan and D. Brooks and G. Champion and A. Dewar and M. Heard and I. Woiwod and R. Daniels and M. Young and A. Parish and R. Scott and L. Firbank and G. Squire},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  year={2003},
  volume={358 1439},
  pages={
          1899-913
        }
}
  • C. Hawes, A. J. Haughton, +16 authors G. Squire
  • Published 2003
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional crop management on invertebrate trophic groups (herbivores, detritivores, pollinators, predators and parasitoids) were compared in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape sites throughout the UK. These trophic groups were influenced by season, crop species and GMHT management. Many groups increased twofold to fivefold in abundance between early and late summer, and differed up to 10-fold between crop species. GMHT management… Expand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.
The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rapeExpand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.
  • D. Brooks, D. Bohan, +30 authors M. J. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Expand
Effects on weed and invertebrate abundance and diversity of herbicide management in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant winter-sown oilseed rape
TLDR
There were few treatment differences between GMHT and conventional cropping, but large and opposite treatment effects were observed for dicots and monocots and there were few other treatment effects on invertebrates, despite the marked effects of herbicide management on the weeds. Expand
Effects of successive seasons of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant maize cropping on weeds and invertebrates
TLDR
There was little evidence of effects being significantly more pronounced in the second year; any cumulative differences in above-ground biodiversity between GMHT and conventional cropping were too variable to be readily detected. Expand
Changes in arthropod fauna from weed management practices in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant maize
TLDR
This three-year study measured the effects on arthropods of an intensive use of broad-spectrum herbicides in comparison with one application of conventional pre-emergence herbicide, finding weed abundance as the main cause of arthropod abundance alteration. Expand
Functional approaches for assessing plant and invertebrate abundance patterns in arable systems
TLDR
Although management has an impact on within-field arable biodiversity, crop type and sowing season have an overriding effect on the functional composition of plant and invertebrate assemblages in arable systems. Expand
Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • D. Roy, D. Bohan, +11 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape and the likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Expand
Weeds and ground-dwelling predators′ response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study
TLDR
It is revealed that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. Expand
Invertebrate biodiversity in maize following withdrawal of triazine herbicides
TLDR
Invertebrate indicators showed remarkably consistent and sensitive responses to weed abundance and benefits of GMHT remained under comparisons with best estimates of future conventional management without triazines, despite reduced differences in weed abundance. Expand
Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.
  • M. Heard, C. Hawes, +10 authors M. Hill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application, which was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank. Expand
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References

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Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.
The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rapeExpand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.
  • D. Brooks, D. Bohan, +30 authors M. J. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Expand
Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species.
  • M. Heard, C. Hawes, +11 authors M. Hill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
For many species in beet and spring oilseed rape (19 out of 24 cases), seed densities were lower in the seedbank after GMHT cropping, which would result in large decreases in population densities of arable weeds. Expand
Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • D. Roy, D. Bohan, +11 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape and the likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Expand
Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.
  • M. Heard, C. Hawes, +10 authors M. Hill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application, which was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank. Expand
Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • G. Champion, M. May, +15 authors M. R. Thomas
  • Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize, and there was no evidence of bias. Expand
On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • G. Squire, D. Brooks, +12 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Evidence from experiments during the twentieth century is analysed to show that large changes in field management have affected sensitive groups in the biota by ca. Expand
An introduction to the Farm‐Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide‐tolerant crops
1. Several genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have cleared most of the regulatory hurdles required for commercial growing in the United Kingdom. However, concerns have beenExpand
Numerical responses of different trophic groups of invertebrates to manipulations of plant diversity in grasslands
TLDR
The similarity of invertebrate responses to plant diversity at the two study sites indicates that general patterns in abundance of different trophic groups can be detected across plant diversity gradients under different environmental conditions. Expand
Predictions of biodiversity response to genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
TLDR
It is predicted that weed populations might be reduced to low levels or practically eradicated, depending on the exact form of management, and subsequent effects on the local use of fields by birds might be severe, because such reductions represent a major loss of food resources. Expand
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