Responses of Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to Antipredator Blood-Squirting and Blood of Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum)

@article{Sherbrooke2004ResponsesOK,
  title={Responses of Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to Antipredator Blood-Squirting and Blood of Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum)},
  author={Wade C. Sherbrooke and George Middendorf},
  journal={Copeia},
  year={2004},
  volume={2004},
  pages={652 - 658}
}
Abstract Six related studies were conducted with four captive juvenile Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to test the hypothesis that blood-squirting from eye-socket tissues by Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) is a canid antipredator defense. In 16 trials, naive “hungry” foxes killed and ate adult Yarrow's Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii; eight of eight trials) slightly more frequently than adult P. cornutum (six of eight trials). Adverse responses by foxes (head shaking) were seen in… 
Antipredator Responses by Texas Horned Lizards to Two Snake Taxa with Different Foraging and Subjugation Strategies
TLDR
For slow-running, broad-bodied Texas Horned Lizards, running is an appropriate escape response to a nonpursuing venomous predator, whereas the nonrunning body-conformation/orientation change is anappropriate defensive response, advertising size and spiny defenses, to a rapid-pursuit snake that must grasp prey with its jaws to effect capture and subjugation.
SENSORY MODALITY USED BY COYOTES IN RESPONDING TO ANTIPREDATOR COMPOUNDS IN THE BLOOD OF TEXAS HORNED LIZARDS
TLDR
It is concluded that Texas horned lizards squirt blood from sinuses surrounding the eyes during attacks by canids, such as coyotes, and that this blood affects oral receptors, causing a negative response in coyote attack behavior that potentially increases survival of the lizards.
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TLDR
Risk assessment by horned lizards conforms to the predictions of escape theory and is similar to that in other prey despite their specialized defenses, suggesting that escape theory based on costs and benefits applies very generally, even to highly cryptic prey that have specialized defense mechanisms.
Initiation of Escape Behavior by the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
TLDR
Although Texas horned lizards rely strongly on crypsis, they make escape decisions based on degree of predation risk, which is interpreted as indicating that P. cornutum assess themselves as being in immediate peril when suddenly covered by a shadow.
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TLDR
It is concluded that P. cornutum does not use tongue flicking to sample chemicals to permit detection and identification of food, and the primary adaptive use of tongue flicked may be for pheromonal communication.
Horned lizards (Phrynosoma) incapacitate dangerous ant prey with mucus.
TLDR
It is concluded that the pharyngeal papillae, in association with a unique form of hyolingual prey transport and swallowing, are horned lizard adaptations related to a diet of dangerous prey.
LIZARD (PHRYNOSOMA CORNUTUM)
TLDR
Although Texas horned lizards rely strongly on crypsis, they make escape decisions based on degree of predation risk, which is interpreted as indicating that P. cornutum assess themselves as being in immediate peril when suddenly covered by a shadow.
BLOOD-SQUIRT OCCURRENCE IN THE MEXICAN PLATEAU HORNED LIZARD (PHRYNOSOMA ORBICULARE)
TLDR
Blood-squirting from ocular sinuses is a unique defensive behavior widespread in horned lizards, and it is suggested that P. orbiculare defensive strategy may be employed throughout life.
Defensive spray by a semiaquatic osmylid larva (Insecta: Neuroptera) for both aquatic and terrestrial predators
TLDR
This is the first report of effective liquid spraying by insects in water, and also within the order Neuroptera, in larvae of Osmylus hyalinatus, a semiaquatic insect inhabiting the edges of small streams and ponds.
The Body Design of Hagfishes (Eptatretus stoutii and Myxine glutinosa) Protects from Biting Predators
TLDR
The ability of hagfishes to survive initial attacks from biting predators may be an essential component of a strategy that relies on defensive slime to thwart further attacks.
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