With the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 2004, Response to Intervention (RTI) was officially introduced. Unlike the discrepancy model, which determines eligibility in special education with a discrepancy between achievement and ability, RTI was designed to provide intensive instruction to students in the general classroom as soon as difficulties in acquiring requisite reading skills are detected. The proposed goals of RTI include the improvement of reading achievement and the identification of students with learning disabilities (LD). Although RTI holds promise for the former goal when certain conditions are met, the latter goal is more elusive. The Component Model of Reading (CMR) is described in the current paper as an alternative to the discrepancy model and RTI. CMR, which consists of three domains, evaluates a poor reader's performance multidimensionally, so the most appropriate instruction for the reader can be designed to ensure reading success. Empirical evidence of CMR is presented.