of TIPS for hepatic hydrothorax. Of the 79 papers identifi ed, 8 studies including a total of 208 patients were identifi ed with relevant clinical details ( 1,3 – 9 ). Short-term ( < day 45) mortality of patients undergoing TIPS for hepatic hydrothorax ranged from 0 % to 29 % . When data from these studies were pooled, short-term mortality was 16.8 % . TIPS insertion is a therapeutic option for patients with refractory hydro thorax. Th ese data emphasize the potential for harm and the need for careful patient selection to minimize early mortality.